Part I Writing
The above bar chart clearly shows us education pays in 2010. We see that one with higher education background earns more money weekly than those with lower ones. For instance, the college students with no degree get paid$712 per week whereas those with a Bachelor’s degree can earn $1038.
Several reasons, in my opinion, can be identified to account for this phenomenon. To begin with, compared with those with comparatively lower education degree, people who have received higher education possess considerably wider knowledge, more remarkable learning and research ability, greater innovation and most of all, resourceful social network, all of which are essential to a high-income work. Also, the higher one’s education degree is, the bigger platform he will have to show his ability. For example, his college, university, or research institute will organize various job fairs for them to communicate face to face with employers.
This phenomenon tells us that education is a worthy investment. Therefore, substantial education investment should be strengthened while we, as college students, should study harder to build our country and strive for a better life for ourselves.
Judging from the table, we can see that people’s income increases along with their education levels. Above all，the average college graduates earn much more than the typical high-school graduates.
The fact revealed by these data is obvious: a degree does bring distinctive financial benefits to its holders. But is it true that a degree alone can ensure a bright future? I don’t think so because, on the one hand, the financial value of high education depends heavily on what skills graduates can gain from it instead of the degree itself. After all, an employer only pays for your ability and performance, not for your certificate. On the other hand, the most valuable bless high education brings to graduates is the ability to learn quickly and efficiently. People received more education tend to keep lifelong learning habits after their graduation, which would help them gain more opportunities in their career path.
In conclusion, what accounts for education pays is not the degree alone, but the graduate’s ability and leaning habit.
The above bar chart clearly shows us education pays in 2010. We see that unemployment rate of those with higher education background is much lower than those with lower education degree. For instance, the unemployment rate of college students with no degree is as high as 14.9% while that of those with doctoral degree is only 1.9%.
The followingreason, in my opinion, is the most important one to account for this phenomenon. Compared with those with comparatively lower education degree, people who have received higher education possess considerably wider knowledge, more remarkable learning and research ability, greater innovation and most of all, resourceful social network, all of which make them more qualified and competent for their task. Thus, they are less likely to lose their jobs.
This phenomenon tells us that education is a worthy investment. Therefore, education investment should be strengthened while we, as college students, should study harder to avoid unemployment.
As is shown in the table, the unemployment rate decreases steadily as the education level increases. The fact revealed by the statistics is obvious: graduates with a degree are less likely to be unemployed.
What has brought about this effect? I believe there are three main reasons. To begin with, the education level is still the top factor that employers would take into account when selecting job candidates. It is believed that people with a college degree tend to be more intelligent and qualified. In addition, as a result of good learning habit formed during college, job hunters with high education background are also more efficient in acquiring and processing job hunting information. Finally, college education equips graduates with specialized skills, leading to greater attachment to the company they are employed and higher possibility to be reemployed even if they leave their previous company.
In conclusion, it is the qualifications, learning habit and specialized skills that high education equip a graduate that make one distinctive in labor market.
第一段：描述图表。先一句话引出图表总体内容The above bar chart clearly shows us … 然后具体描述现象We see that…。最后用for instance引出一些具体数据来例证现象。
第三段：给出建议。先是总结这个现象This phenomenon tells us that education is a worthy investment.(教育值得投资)。然后是建议国家增大教育投资，以及个人要努力学习。
Part II Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning)
1. B showmanship
细节题。这道题的答案对应原文第一句话，从putting on a show 可以推出showmanship。
when it came to putting on a show, nobody else in the computer industry, or any other industry for that matter, could match Steve Jobs.题干与原文的匹配度比较高，仔细阅读不难得出选择是B
2. A He invented lots of functional gadgets.
细节题。原文第2段第2句话提到了乔布斯突出的三个方面，第三句话明确指出最后一个方面，也就是他在functional gadgets 上的贡献对人们的生活影响最大，对比第二题的选项，应选A
He stood out in three ways-as a technologist, as a corporate leader and as somebody who was able to make people love what had previously been impersonal, functional gadgets. Strangely, it is this last quality that may have the deepest effect on the way people live.
3. B His keen interest in designing elegant and user-friendly gadgets.
细节题。答案在第三段第二句，“obsessed with product design and aesthetics, and with making advanced technology simple to use”。讲到乔布斯痴迷于产品的设计和美学上，以及使高科技简单易用。所以选B
As a technologist, Mr Jobs was different because he was not an engineer-and that was his great strength. Instead he was obsessed with product design and aesthetics, and with making advanced technology simple to use.
4. A One of the greatest chief executives of his time.
细节题。答案在第4段第一句话的后半句“many of those corporate giants as one of the greatest chief executives of his time.”所以选A，其他的选项均不正确。
Within the wider business world, a man who liked to see himself as a hippy, permanently in revolt against big companies, ended up being hailed by many of those corporate giants as one of the greatest chief executives of his time.
5. D an inspiration
细节题。答案在第四段第三句话。“is an inspiration to any businessperson”。所以选D
His fall from grace in the 1980s, followed by his return to Apple in 1996 after a period in the wilderness, is an inspiration to any businessperson whose career has taken a turn for the worse.‘
6. C He commanded absolute loyalty from Apple users.
细节题。由关键词fanatical loyalty 定位到低段第一句话。所以乔布斯成功最令人震惊的地方在于它获得了苹果用户的绝对忠诚。选C
But what was perhaps most astonishing about Mr Jobs was the fanatical loyalty he managed to inspire in customers.
7. D It originates in the consumer market.
As our special report in this week's issue (printed before Mr Jobs's death) explains, innovation used to spill over from military and corporate laboratories to the consumer market, but lately this process has gone into reverse. Many people's homes now have more powerful, and more flexible, devices than their offices do; consumer gizmos and online services are smarter and easier to use than most companies' systems.过去创新是从部队和公司实验室再拓展到消费者市场，现在的情况是反过来。所以选D
8. closed and inflexible
细节题。由关键词 “critics complained”定位到第七段第一句，可知空格处应填写“closed and inflexible”。
Mr Jobs had a reputation as a control freak, and his critics complained that the products and systems he designed were closed and inflexible, in the name of greater ease of use.
At the recent unveiling of a tablet computer by Jeff Bezos of Amazon, whose company is doing the best job of following Apple's lead in combining hardware, software, content and services in an easy-to-use bundle,
10. reshaping entire industries
细节题，由关键词the magic of computing定位到原文最后一段， 空格处填reshaping entire industries.
But in the end he conjured up a reality of his own, channelling the magic of computing into products that reshaped entire industries.
Part III Listening Comprehension
W: I just heard about a really beautiful park in the east end of the town. There are a lot of roses in bloom.
M: Why don’t we walk over there and see for ourselves?
Q: What will the speakers probably do?
答案：C. Go to the park to enjoy the flowers.
点评：对话中女士介绍了一处漂亮的公园，从男士的回答“为什么不去看看呢?”可以判断，接下去两人可能会去这个公园。see for 看见
M: My presentation is scheduled for 9:30 tomorrow morning at the lecture hall. I hope to see you there.
W: Oh, sorry. I was about to tell you that I have an appointment with my dentist at 9:00 o’clock tomorrow.
Q: What do we learn about the woman?
答案：C. She cannot attend the presentation.
W: How long have you been running this company?
M: Twenty years if you can believe that. I brought it from a small operation to what it is today.
Q: What do we learn about the man?
答案：B. He is a very successful businessman.
点评：从对话中可知，男士经营这家公司20年了，而且成功把公司从一家小公司发展到了现在较大的规模。run v. 经营，管理
M: Have you read the news on the campus net? Susan has won the scholarship for next year.
W: I knew she would from the very beginning. Such a brilliant and diligent girl! She certainly deserves it.
Q: What does the woman mean?
答案：D. She has every confidence in Susan.
点评：从对话中可知，女士一直很看好Susan, 觉得她肯定能拿到奖学金。sb. deserves it. 某人应得的。
W: Taking a bus to Miami, it’s cheaper than going by train.
M: That’s true. But I’d rather pay a little more for the added comfort and convenience.
Q: What does the man mean?
答案：D. It is worth the money taking a train to Miami.
M: I think it’s time we got rid of all this old furniture.
W: You’re right. We need to promote our image besides it’s not a real antique.
Q: What do the speakers mean?
答案：C. The old furniture should be replaced.
get rid of 处理掉
M: That was some storm yesterday. How was I afraid I couldn’t make it home.
W: Yeah, most of the roads to my house were flooded. I didn’t get home from the lab until midnight.
Q: What do we learn from the conversation?
答案：B. The man got home late due to the storm.
W: My boys are always complaining that they’re bored.
M: Why don’t you get them into some team sports? My son and daughter play soccer every Saturday. And they both look forward to it all week.
Q: What does the man mean?
答案：A. The woman’s sons might enjoy team sports.
Questions 19 to 21 are based on the conversation you have just heard
W: So John, I hear you and Arthur share a job, don’t you?
M: Yes. We’ve shared a sales job at Sonatechfor about two years now.
W: Well, how do you divide up your schedule?
M: You know we are both sales representatives, and we take orders over the phone. When we started job sharing it was difficult, because we both worked all day Monday. I worked Tuesday and Thursday and Arthur worked Wednesday and Friday. The problem was that when I was in the office on Tuesday. I would talk to people, then they would call back on Wednesday with a question. But Arthur couldn’t answer the question and he couldn’t ask me about it because I wasn’t in the office. So he had to ask the people to call me back the next day, Thursday. Of course, they didn’t like to wait until the next day to have their questions answered.
W: Yes, that sounds like a problem.
M: So, finally we decided that Arthur would work in the mornings and I would work in the afternoons. Now if someone calls with the question for me in the morning, Arthur tells them to call me in the afternoon. This way, people get their questions answered the same day.
W: What do you do about vacations?
M: Well,Sonatechgives the usual two weeks of vacation to full-time employees, I take a week and Arthur takes a week.
W: It sounds like job sharing has worked out well for you.
M: Yes, it has. We are both happy with it.
Q19. What do John and author do at Sonatech?
答案：C. Take orders over the phone.
Q20. What problem did John and Arthur have when they started job sharing?
答案：A. Customers’ questions could not be answered on the same day.
Q21. What does John say about their annual vacation?
答案：D. They each take a week.
对话中围绕工作的话题词汇有：schedule：(工作)计划，安排;sales representative：销售代表;vacation：假期，休假;full-time employee：全职员工。
Questions 22 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard
W: May I see your license, please?
M: But officer, did I do something wrong?
W: Do you mean to say you didn’t see the speed limit sign back there?
M: Um, no, madam, I guess I didn’t.
W: In other words, you drove by too fast to read it. The sign says 35m/h. A school is just nearby, you know?
M: Don’t get me wrong, but my speedometer didn’t read much faster than that.
W: Then, why is it that my radar showed you are going 45? Let me put it another way. I’m going to give you a ticket. Again, may I see your license, please?
M: Here it is, officer. But let me explain. I was late for an important appointment and I was worried that I wouldn’t make it on time. So...
W: Uha, just a minute, here. Your license is no longer valid. You should have renewed it two weeks ago. I’m going to have to write you up for that, too.
M: What? Really?
W: Your license becomes invalid on your birthday and that was two weeks ago according to the date here. You are in violation of the law-driving without a valid license.
M: I’m sorry, madam. I hadn’t realized that.
W: Here’s the ticket for not having a valid license. But I’m only going to give you a warning about exceeding the speed limit. Be careful next time.
M: Yes, madam, officer, I will. Thank you.
Q22. Where was the man stopped by the police officer?
答案：B. Near a school.
Q23. What did the man claim about the speed limit sign?
答案：A. He did not notice it.
Q24. What did the woman say about the man’s driving license?
答案：C. It is no longer valid.
Q25. What was the man’s penalty?
答案：B. He got a ticket.
本对话中关于交通话题的词汇：speed limit：限速;give you a ticket：开罚单;license：执照，驾照;speedometer：n. 速度计;里程计。
Since I started working part-time at a grocery store, I have learned that a customer is more than someone who buy something. To me, a customer is a person whose memory fails entirely once he or she starts to push a shopping card. One of the first things customers forget is how to count. There is no other way to explain how so many people get in their express line, which is clearly marked 15 items or less, with 20, 25 or even a cart load of items. Customers also forget why they came to the store in the first place. Just as I finish ringing up an order, a customer will say, “Oops, I forgot to pick up a fresh loaf of bread. I hope you don’t mind waiting while I go get it.” Five minutes later, he’s back with the bread, a bottle of milk, and three rolls of paper towels. Strange is that seems customers also seem to forget that they have to pay for their groceries. Instead of writing a check or looking for a credit card while I am ringing up the groceries, my customers will wait until I announce the total. Then, in surprise, she says, “Oh no, what did I do with my check book?” After 5 minutes of digging through her purse, she borrows my pen because she’s forgotten hers. But I have to be tolerant of customers because they pay my salary, and that’s something I can’t afford to forget.
Q26. What does the speaker say about customers’ entering the grocery store?
答案：A. They behave as if their memories have failed totally.
Q27. Which customers are supposed to be in the express line?
答案： D. Those with 15 items or less.
Q28. What does the speaker say some customers do when they arrive at the check-out counter?
答案：B. Go back and pick up more items.
Q29. What does the speaker say about his job at the end of the talk?
答案： A. It requires tolerance.
这篇文章基本上没有生僻的词汇，以叙述为主。但是其中有几个短语需要关注：grocery store意为“杂货店”;ring up意为“用收银机记录收入的钱，收银机扫条形码”;credit card意为“信用卡”。理解了这些词，对听力的整体理解会有提升。
The speech delivery style of Europeans and Asians tends to be very formal.Speakers of these cultures often read oral presentations from carefully retain manual scripts. On the other hand, American speakers are generally more informal relative to speakers and other cultures. American audiences prefernatural, spontaneous delivery that conveys a lively sense of communication. They don’t relay well to speakers who read from a manual script. If you use an outline of your ideas instead of a prepare text, your speech will not only sound more natural, but you will also be able to establish better relationship with your listeners and keep their attention. The language and style you use when making an oral presentation should not be the same as the language in style you use when writing. Well retain information, that is meant to be read, does not work aswell when it is heard. It is, therefore, important for you to adapt retain texts or outlines for presentations. Good speakers are much more informal when speaking than when writing. They also use their own words and develop their own speaking styles. Whenever possible, they use short words. Listeners are appreciated when speakers use simple, everyday words in a presentation. One advantage is that it is much easier for speakers to pronounce short words correctly. Another is that long and sophisticated vocabulary choices make listening more difficult.
Question 30 to 32
30. What does the speaker say American audiences prefer?
答案：D. A natural and spontaneous style of speech.
31. What should one pay attention to when making an oral presentation?
答案： B. Differences in style between writing and speaking.
32. What does the speaker focus on in the talk?
答案：A. The key to becoming a good speaker.
A child learning to talk does not learn by being corrected all the time. If corrected too much, he will stop talking. He compares a thousand times a day the difference between language as he uses it and language as those around him use it. Bit by bit, he makes the necessary changes to make his language like other people’s. In the same way, kids learning to do all the other things they learn without adult teachers, to walk, run, climb, ride a bike, play games, compare their own performance with what more skilled people do, and slowly make the needed changes. But in school we never give a child a chance to detect his mistakes. We do it all for him. We act as if we thought he would never notice a mistake unless it was pointed out to him. Soon he becomes dependent on the expert. We should let him do it himself. Let him figure out, with the help of other children if he wants it, what this word says, what is the answer to that problem, whether this is a good way of saying or doing this or that.
If right answers need to be given, as in mathematics or science, give him the answer book. Let him correct his own papers. Why should we teachers waste time on such tedious work? Our job should be to help the children when they tell us that they can’t find the way to get the right answer.
Question 33 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard.
Q33 How does a child learn to do something according to the speaker?
答案：D. By comparing his performance with others.
Q34 What belief do teachers commonly hold according to the speaker?
答案：C. Children cannot detect their own mistakes.
Q35 What does the speaker imply about the current way of teaching?
答案：A. It is unhelpful to students’ learning.
Time is, for the average American, of utmost importance. To the foreign visitor, Americans seem to be more concerned with getting things accomplished on time (according to a predetermined schedule) than they are with developing deep interpersonal relations. Schedules, for the American, are meant to be planned and then followed in the smallest detail.
It may seem to you that most Americans are completely controlled by the little machines they wear on their wrists, cutting their discussions off abruptly to make it to their next appointment on time.
Americans’ language is filled with references to time, giving a clear indication of how much it is valued. Time is something to be “on,” to be “kept,” “filled,” “saved,” “wasted,” “gained,” “planned,” “given,” “made the most of,” even “killed.”
The international visitor soon learns that it is considered very rude to be late -- even by 10 minutes -- for an appointment in America.
Time is so valued in America, because by considering time to be important one can clearly achieve more than if one “wastes” time and doesn’t keep busy. This philosophy has proven its worth. It has enabled Americans to be extremely productive, and productivity itself is highly valued in America. Many American proverbs stress the value of guarding time, using it wisely, and setting and working toward specific goals. Americans believe in spending their time and energy today so that the fruits of their labor may be enjoyed at a later time.
44. it is considered very rude to be late -- even by 10 minutes -- for an appointment in America.
45. It has enabled Americans to be extremely productive, and productivity itself is highly valued in America.
46. Americans believe in spending their time and energy today so that the fruits of their labor may be enjoyed at a later time.
本文的难点在于，开头有长难句，包含插入语、比较级等，容易造成困扰。而在语言角度探讨时，有给出一系列动词，容易出现漏听及注意力分散。同时，utmost, abruptly, reference, philosophy, productivity等较难词汇也会带来一定困扰。
Part IV Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth)
47. N taking
48. D concern
49. M stop
50. B available
51. I prefer
52. L specify
53. O variety
54. G nationwide
55. F items
56. E criteria
这是一篇新闻报道类的文章，关于美国一些著名餐公司开始意识到快餐对对其青少年健康的不良影响，并开始采取相应措施改变这一现状。这是美国最近的热门话题， 听力课堂经济学人新闻听写内容关于麦当劳的一篇文章与之就是类似的主题。 对于考生来说这一话题也并不陌生，从内容上来还是比较容易理解的。
47.N take a cue from 固定搭配，表示按…的指点行事。
49.M 因为上一段刚刚提到快餐引起儿童肥胖的问题获得了越来越多的重视，第2段顺承上面的内容，讲到汉堡王采取的相应措施：将从本月起停止提供儿童快餐里的炸薯条和苏打汽水.所以填stop 。
51. 这句话涉及到一个比较，whether...or, 选项中只有prefer一个课用于比较，所以空格处填prefer.
52. 这是紧接着上一句的， 上面刚刚讲到问顾客是选择套餐时是更喜欢选牛奶还是苹果片，这是一种将顾客的需求具体化，所以填specify。
53. a variety of 固定搭配，各种各样的。 在这句话中是指其他参与将为美国儿童提供更健康的事物的快餐店，也提供各种各样的菜单选择。
54. 结合上下文可知，(Kid Live Well)“让孩子们生活的更好”运动应该是全国范围内展开的一场大型运动，所以填nationwide。
55 通过第三段第一句话的后半句可以看出， 儿童的每顿饭中要包含冒号之后部分的食物中的至少两项，所以55空填item ，指的是后面的选项。
56. 前面提到的食物都是低脂、第卡路里的健康食物，最后一句中提到在其他的要求中，餐馆提供的附加菜必须满足同样的要求, 所以填criteria
As you are probably aware, the latest job markets news isn’t good: Unemployment is still more than 9 percent, and new job growth has fallen close to zero. That’s bad for the economy, of course. And it may be especially discouraging if you happen to be looking for a job or hoping to change careers right now. But it actually shouldn’t matter to you nearly as much as you think.
That’s because job growth numbers don’t matter to job hunters as much as job turnover data. After all, existing jobs open up every day due to promotions, resignations, terminations, and retirements. (Yes, people are retiring even in this economy.) In both good times and bad, turnover creates more openings than economic growth does. Even in June of 2007, when the economy was still humming along, job growth was only 132,000, while turnover was 4.7 million!
And as it turns out, even today - with job growth near zero - over 4 million job hunters are being hired every month.
I don’t mean to imply that overall job growth doesn’t have an impact on one’s ability to land a job. It’s true that if total employment were higher, it would mean more jobs for all of us to choose from (and compete for). And it’s true that there are currently more people applying for each available job opening, regardless of whether it’s a new one or not.
But what often distinguishes those who land jobs from those who don’t is their ability to stay motivated. They’re willing to do the hard work of identifying their valuable skills; be creative about where and how to look; learn how to present themselves to potential employers; and keep going, even after repeated rejections. The Bureau of Labor Statistics data shows that 2.7 million people who wanted and were available for work hadn’t looked within the last four weeks and were no longer even classified as unemployed.
So don’t let the headlines fool you into giving up. Four million people get hired every month in the U.S. You can be one of them.
57. The author tends to believe that high unemployment rate ______?
A) deprives many people of job opportunities.
B) prevents many people from changing careers.
C) should not stop people from looking for a job.
D) does not mean the U.S. economy is worsening.
58. Where do most job openings come from?
A) Job growth
B) Job turnover
C) Improved economy
D) Business expansion
59. What does the author say about overall job growth?
A) It doesn’t have much effect on individual job seekers.
B) It increases people’s confidence in the economy.
C) It gives a ray of hope to the unemployed.
D) It doesn’t mean greater job security for the employed.
60. What is the key to landing a job according to the author?
61. What do we learn from the passage about the unemployment figures in the US?
A) They clearly indicate how healthy the economy is.
B) They provide the public with the latest information.
C) They warn of the structural problems in the economy.
D) They exclude those who have stopped looking for a job.
点评：本篇文章选自TIME周刊的财经板块，原文标题为“Why Job Hunters Shouldn’t Worry So Much About Paltry Job Growth”，文章主要表达了这样一种观点，即找工作的人不必太在意官方提供的高失业率，就业增长等数据，原因在于这些并不等说明现实情况，比如：人员更替带来了更多的职位空缺，因此，即便是经济增速缓慢，就业增长为零，依然还是有很多的职位空缺存在。所以，如作者最后点睛所言，So don’t let the headlines fool you into giving up. 不灰心不放弃。
今后大家还应当继续注重一些商务词汇的表达，如job turnover(人员更替)，termination解雇，land jobs找工作，等等。
57. The author tends to believe that high unemployment rate ______?
答案：C. should not stop people from looking for a job.
解析：本题重点考察作者观点。题干问在作者看来，高失业率怎么样?锁定原文第一段，虽然第一段中的bad for the economy，discouraging，change careers等字眼跟选项ABD当中的词汇很类似，但是要注意的是，真正表达作者观点的是第一段最后一句But it actually shouldn’t matter to you nearly as much as you think。其实高失业率跟你没太大关系。包括原文最后一段第一句“So don’t let the headlines fool you into giving up.”所以，综上所述，它不该给你找工作带来阻碍，引申意思就是该怎么办就怎么办，不要在意官方统计的高失业率。
58. Where do most job openings come from?
答案：B. Job turnover
解析：本题属于细节考查题。题干问大部分的职位空缺来自于哪里?根据四个选项，可以用排除法将business expansion排除，因为原文并未提及。再剩下的三个选项中，根据原文第二段的第一句job growth numbers don’t matter to job hunters as much asjob turnover data以及turnovercreates more openings than economic growth does.可以确定人员更替(turnover)提供了更多的职位空缺，因此答案为Job turnover。
59. What does the author say about overall job growth?
答案：A. It doesn’t have much effect on individual job seekers.
解析：本题继续考察作者观点。题干问作者对于整体就业增长(overall job growth)的态度是怎样的，可以定位到原文倒数第三段，关键是第一句：I don’t mean to imply that overall job growth doesn’t have an impact on one’s ability to land a job. 此处用到双重否定，“我并不是说整体就业增长对一个人找工作没有丝毫影响”，也就是说“有一定影响，但是没有那么大”所以答案是A，而BCD选项的confidence，hope，job security原文并未提及。
60. What is the key to landing a job according to the author?
解析：本题属于细节考查题。定位原文倒数第二段第一句But what often distinguishes those who land jobs from those who don’t is their ability to stay motivated. 关键词是stay motivated
61. What do we learn from the passage about the unemployment figures in the US?
答案：D. They exclude those who have stopped looking for a job.
解析：本题属于细节考查题。根据倒数第二段的最后一句The Bureau of Labor Statistics data shows that 2.7 million people who wanted and were available for work hadn’t looked within the last four weeks and were no longer even classified as unemployed.可知答案选D，那一部分人已经被排除掉了，所以失业率这个数据是有水分的。
Our risk of cancer rises dramatically as we age. So it makes sense that the elderly should be routinely screened for new tumors - or doesn’t it?
While such vigilant(警觉的)tracking of cancer is a good thing in general, researchers are increasingly questioning whether all of this testing is necessary for the elderly. With the percentage of people over age 65 expected to nearly double by 2050, it’s important to weigh the health benefits of screening against the risks and costs of routine testing.
In many cases, screening can lead to additional biopsies and surgeries to remove cancer, which can cause side effects, while the cancers themselves may be slow-growing and may not pose serious health problems in patients’ remaining years. But the message that everyone must screen for cancer has become so ingrained that when health care experts recommended that women under 50 and over 74 stop screening for breast cancer, it caused a riotous reaction among doctors, patients and advocacy groups.
It’s hard to uproot deeply held beliefs about cancer screening with scientific data. Certainly, there are people over age 75 who have had cancers detected by routine screening, and gained several extra years of life because of treatment. And clearly, people over age 75 who have other risk factors for cancer, such as a family history or prior personal experience with the disease, should continue to get screened regularly. But for the remainder, the risk of cancer, while increased at the end of life, must be balanced with other factors like remaining life expectancy(预期寿命).
A recent study suggests that doctors start to make more objective decisions about who will truly benefit from screening- especially considering the explosion of the elderly that will soon swell our population.
It’s not an easy calculation to make, but one that make sense for the whole patient. Dr. Otis Brawley said, “Many doctors are ordering these tests purely to cover themselves. We need to think about the rational use of health care and stop talking about the rationing of health care.”
That means making some difficult decisions with elderly patients, and going against the misguided belief that when it comes to health care, more is always better.
62. Why do doctors recommend routine cancer screening for elderly people?
A. It is believed to contribute to long life.
B. It is part of their health care package.
C. The elderly are more sensitive about their health.
D. The elderly are in greater danger of tumor growth.
63. How do some researchers now look at routine cancer screening for the elderly?
A. It adds too much to their medical bills.
B. It helps increase their life expectancy.
C. They are doubtful about necessity.
D. They think it does more than good.
64. What is the conventional view about women screening for breast cancer?
A. It applies to women over 50.
B. It is a must for adult women.
C. It is optional for young women.
D. It doesn’t apply to women over 74.
65. Why do many doctors prescribe routine screening for cancer?
A. They want to protect themselves against medical disputes.
B. They want to take advantage of the medical care system.
C. They want data for medical research.
D. They want their patients to suffer less.
66. What does the author say is the general view about health care?
A. The more, the better.
B. Prevention is better than cure.
C. Better early than late.
D. Better care, longer life.
62. D. The elderly are in greater danger of tumor growth.
63. C. They are doubtful about its necessity.
64. B. It is a must for adult women.
65. A. They want to protect themselves against medical disputes.
66. A. The more, the better.
Part V Cloze
Strong emotional bonds between mothers and infants increase children’s willingness to explore the world-an effect that has been observed 67 the animal kingdom, in people, monkeys and even spiders. The more secure we are in our 68 to Mom, the more likely we are to try new things and take risks. Now researchers are discovering that this effect continues into adulthood. A 69 reminder of Mom’s touch or the sound of her voice on the phone is
70 to change people’s minds and moods, 71 their decision making in measurable ways.
In a study 72 online in April in Psychological Science, undergraduate business students had to choose between safe bets and risky gambles-a bond with a guaranteed 4 percent yearly
73 or a riskier stock option, for example. In half the cases, the experimenters patted the students 74 on the back of the shoulder for about one second 75 providing verbal instructions about the study. Both male and female students who were touched by a female experimenter were 76 more likely to choose the risky alternative 77 were those who had not been touched or were patted by male experimenters. The reassuring(宽慰的)touch of a woman may have induced early associations, 78 the same openness to exploration that is observed in young children of 79 mothers, explains Jonathan Levav, a business professor at Columbia University and lead author of the study.
To further 80 that a woman’s touch links feelings of security 81 risk taking, the researchers asked a 82 group of undergraduates to make financial decisions after a writing exercise. Half of them wrote about a time they felt secure and supported, whereas the 83 half wrote about feeling insecure and alone. Evoking (唤起) a 84 of insecurity made students in the latter group 85 receptive to the gentle shoulder pats from female experimenters and much more willing to take a risk-just as a child leaving for a field trip might steal one last reassuring hug 86 Mom before stepping on the bus.
67. A. by B. up C. above D. across
68. A. concern B. attachment C. treatment D. appeal
69. A. bare B. unique C. mere D. just
70. A. enough B. ready C. easy D. quick
71. A. generating B. regulating C. affecting D. refining
72. A. exhibited B. published C. appeared D. advertised
73. A. return B. expense C. cost D. prize
74. A. seemingly B. strongly C. partly D. lightly
75. A. if B. so C. while D. whereas
76. A. rather B. far C. further D. pretty
77. A. than B. as C. which D. that
78. A. intending B. inferring C. inspiring D. instructing
79. A. supportive B. lively C. strict D. respectful
80. A. enable B. ensure C. consent D. confirm
81. A. beyond B. with C. for D. along
82. A. relative B. competitive C. different D. successive
83. A. next B. other C. minor D. opposite
84. A. hint B. clue C. chain D. sense
85. A. especially B. specially C. securely D. entirely
86. A. toward B. into C. of D. from
67-70：DCCA 71-75CBADC 76-80：BACAD 81-85：BCBDA 86：D
All about My Mother: How Touch Helps Us Take Risks，作者Ferris Jabr。原文共五段，495字，题目选取了原文前三段并做了细微修改，共345字。主要讲述的是母亲与婴儿间形成的情感纽带会影响孩子探索世界的行为。这是一篇典型的议论文，第一段第一句给出论点，指出母亲与婴儿间形成的情感纽带会影响人们的行为，接着在第二段和第三段，通过两个已经发表的文章中的实验来证明这一观点。
87. I finally got the job I dreamed about. Never before in my life___________(我感到如此激动)!
88. Yesterday Jane left the meeting early. Otherwise, she_____________________(可能会说一些后来会懊悔的话.)
89. With the noise going on outside the classroom, I had great difficulty _______________(集中注意力复习功课).
90. This is the first time I ____________________(听到他们用法语交流).
91.All the information you need to apply for your visa is _______________(可以免费获取).
87. had I felt so excited
88.could have said somethingthat she might regret later
89.in focusing on reviewing the lessons
【解析】本题考查短语固定搭配。”has / have difficult in doing something”,表示做什么有困难。本题表示无法集中注意力复习功课。“复习功课”通常的表达有 “review the lessons”, “go over the lessons”。
90.have heard them communicating with each other in French.
【解析】本题考查使役动词的用法以及现在完成时。表示第几次做某事 ，本句谓语是“is”一般现在时，那么主句用现在完成时”have done”;“听到某人做某事”的固定表达为”hear sb. doing sth.”
91. available for free
【解析】本题固定表达。”be available “，意思为“可得到的，可获得的”;“免费”用介词结构”for free”。