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考研英语阅读理解真题及详解No.66

[日期:06-04] 来源:网络  作者:未知 [字体: ]
考研英语阅读理解真题及详解No.66



 
  Exceptional children are different in some significant way from others of the same age. For these children to develop to their full adult potential, their education must be adapted to those differences.

  Although we focus on the needs of exceptional children, we find ourselves describing their environment as well. While the leading actor on the stage captures our attention, we are aware of the importance of the supporting players and the scenery of the play itself. Both the family and the society in which exceptional children live are often the key to their growth and development. And it is in the public schools that we find the full expression of society's understanding — the knowledge, hopes, and fears that are passed on to the next generation.

  Education in any society is a mirror of that society. In that mirror we can see the strengths, the weaknesses, the hopes, the prejudices, and the central values of the culture itself. The great interest in exceptional children shown in public education over the past three decades indicates the strong feeling in our society that all citizens, whatever their special conditions, deserve the opportunity to fully develop their capabilities.

  "All men are created equal." We've heard it many times, but it still has important meaning for education in a democratic society. Although the phrase was used by this country's founders to denote equality before the law, it has also been interpreted to mean equality of opportunity. That concept implies educational opportunity for all children — the right of each child to receive help in learning to the limits of his or her capacity, whether that capacity be small or great. Recent court decisions have confirmed the right of all children — disabled or not — to an appropriate education, and have ordered that public schools take the necessary steps to provide that education. In response, schools are modifying their programs, adapting instruction to children who are exceptional, to those who cannot profit substantially from regular programs.

59. In paragrah 2, the author cites the example of the leading actor on the stage to show that ________.
  [A] the growth of exceptional children has much to do with their family and the society
  [B] exceptional children are more influenced by their families than normal children are
  [C] exceptional children are the key interest of the family and society
  [D] the needs of the society weigh much heavier than the needs of the exceptional children

60. The reason that the exceptional children receive so much concern in education is that ________.
  [A] they are expected to be leaders of the society
  [B] they might become a burden of the society
  [C] they should fully develop their potentials
  [D] disabled children deserve special consideration

61. This passage mainly deals with ________.
  [A] the differences of children in their learning capabilities
  [B] the definition of exceptional children in modern society
  [C] the special educational programs for exceptional children
  [D] the necessity of adapting education to exceptional children

62. From this passage we learn that the educational concern for exceptional children ________.
  [A] is now enjoying legal support
  [B] disagrees with the tradition of the country
  [C] was clearly stated by the country's founders
  [D] will exert great influence over court decisions


重点词汇

denote /di5nEut/ (v.表示)即de+note,de-向下,note记录,“记录下来”→表示。Wisdom denotes the pursuing of the best and by the best means.“明智”指的是以最好的方法追求最好的结果。

难句解析

①Exceptional children are different in some significant way from others of the same age. For these children to develop to their full adult potential, their education must be adapted to those differences.
▲第一个短句结构很简单,第二句中For these children to develop to their full adult potential是一个表示目的的状语,也可以看成是一个从主句their education must be adapted to those differences后面提前了的介词结构。
△第一个短句中exceptional一词我们从文章后面的叙述中可以知道它不是我们一般理解的“杰出的,出类拔萃的”,而应指“反常的,有缺陷的”,其实此处的exceptional是一种“身有残疾”的委婉表达法;significant应理解为“重要的,关键的”,而第二句的develop to their full adult potential的develop是一个不及物动词,意为“发展,养成”,而potential是一个名词,意为“潜能”;be adapted to的意思是“被调整,适应”。

②While the leading actor on the stage captures our attention, we are aware of the importance of the supporting players and the scenery of the play itself.
▲此句由一个while引导的让步状语从句the leading actor on the stage captures our attention和一个主句构成。
△要理解本句,重点是看到它是一个类比,把残疾儿童比喻为舞台上的主要角色,而他们的家庭和社会环境被比喻为配角和戏剧的布景。在考研的阅读理解中,当我们碰到作者使用各种比喻和类比时,最重要的一点就是要弄清其用比喻来说明的对象。

③And it is in the public schools that we find the full expression of society's understanding — the knowledge, hopes, and fears that are passed on to the next generation.
▲这是一个强调结构,强调的是in the public schools,后面find的宾语expression of society's understanding又有一个补语,而其中又包含一个定语从句。
△本句理解的重点是短语the full expression of society's understanding。注意此处understanding不单纯是“理解”的意思,应该是指“理智,知性”,如果在开始阅读时对understanding一词的理解不够深刻,也可以从破折号后面的补充成分入手理解其深刻含义。

④The great interest in exceptional children shown in public education over the past three decades indicates the strong feeling in our society that all citizens, whatever their special conditions, deserve the opportunity to fully develop their capabilities.
▲此句结构比较复杂,上来先应该抓住其主干结构The great interest... indicates the strong feeling...。而主语the great interest后面有一个修饰成分in exceptional children shown in public education over the past three decades,在宾语the strong feeling后面有一个同位语从句that all citizens, whatever their special conditions, deserve the opportunity to fully develop their capabilities。
△要理解本句,重点在理清句子结构,并注意whatever their special conditions是用来修饰all citizens的。

⑤That concept implies educational opportunity for all children — the right of each child to receive help in learning to the limits of his or her capacity, whether that capacity be small or great.
▲此句的主句是That concept implies educational opportunity for all children,而破折号后面的是对educational opportunity for all children这一事物的进一步说明,其中包含有一个whether引导的从句,其中省略了should,可以被视为一种虚拟语气。
△此句的阅读重点在于抓住围绕educational opportunity所展开的几层意思,从the right再到更进一层的capacity。

⑥In response, schools are modifying their programs, adapting instruction to children who are exceptional, to those who cannot profit substantially from regular programs.
▲此句的主句是schools are modifying their programs,后面是一个分词短语作状语,而在这个状语中又有两个定语从句who are exceptional和who cannot profit substantially from regular programs来修饰children。
△注意词组adapting instruction to children(使授课能够适应儿童),另外substantially是“真正地”的意思。

试题解析

59. [A] 该选择项中“have much to do with”意为:与……有很大的关系,与……紧密相关。
  文章中第2段第2句所举的这个例子旨在说明其他演员及场景对主演的重要作用,这个例子又用来说明本段第1句与第3句阐明的道理。
  [B]的意思文章未提及。
  [C]与作者所呼吁的应该去做的事相反。
  [D]该选择项中“weigh much heavier than”意为:比……分量重得多,比……重要得多。由此可见该选择项的内容与文章的内容丝毫不相关。

60. [C] 该项意为:其潜能应得到充分的发展。
  参阅文章第3段第3句,社会对特殊儿童接受普通教育的关注表明他们的主张:任何公民都应该得到使其潜能充分发展的机会。这也是整篇文章的主旨:教育应该有利于特殊儿童的成长(参阅第1段第2句以及第4段第3、5句)。
  [A]与本文所主张的让特殊儿童平等受普通教育的思想格格不入,另外,从上下文来看,该文中所说的exceptional children是指残疾儿童(disabled/retarded children)。
  [B]这与原文所传达的思想相违背。
  [D]原文强调的是特殊儿童应得到平等受教育的机会以利于其能力的充分发展,而这个选择项强调对残疾儿童应区别对待,这与原文是不吻合的。

61. [D] 由对第60题的分析可以看出,本文主要在于说明改革目前的教育方式使之更有利于特殊儿童的成长的重要性(或必要性)。
  [A]本文未列举儿童在学习能力方面存在哪些差别。
  [B]本文也未对什么样的儿童称为特殊儿童进行界定。
  [C]本文主要谈的是使目前的教育更适合特殊儿童的发展的重要性,但并没主张为他们设立一套特殊的教学计划,更没谈具体设立什么教学计划或项目。

62. [A] 参阅原文第4段第4句。句中confirm意为:认可,批准,使……有效。
  [B]该选择项中disagree with意为:与……不一致。
  从文章第4段第1、23句来看,该项表达的内容与事实相反。
  [C]文章第4段第3句指出,国家的创始者们的人人平等这一思想也包含了儿童平等受教育的权利,但这并不意味着他们业已明确地表达了(clearly stated)对特殊儿童的教育的关怀。
  [D]儿童平等受教育的权利已获得法律上的认可,法庭裁决也必须依法行事,因此,该项所表达的内容(将会对法庭的裁决起很大影响)是不正确的。

全文翻译

  特殊儿童与其他同龄的正常孩子相比有一些重要的不同之处。对于这些孩子来说,要使他们到成年时全部的潜力能得到开发,那么他们所受的教育就必须适应那些差异。
  尽管我们关注的焦点是特殊儿童的需要,但我们发现自己也在描述他们的生活环境。当舞台上的主角吸引了我们的注意力后,我们也能意识到配角及剧目本身场景的重要性。特殊儿童所处的家庭及社会环境常常是他们成长和发展的关键。正是在公立学校里我们感受到了社会知性的充分体现——传授给下一代的知识、希望和恐惧。
  任何社会的教育都是反映该社会的一面镜子。在这面镜子里,我们可以看到力量、弱点、希望、偏见及文化本身的核心价值。过去30年间公共教育所表现出的对特殊儿童的巨大关注表明了存在于我们社会中的那种强烈的感受,即所有公民,不论情况特殊与否,都应该得到全面发展其能力的机会。
  “人人生来平等”这句话我们已听过无数次,但它对民主社会的教育仍然有着极其重要的寓意。尽管这句话被国家缔造者们用来预示法律面前人人平等,它也被解释为机会面前人人平等。这一概念暗示了所有儿童都有接受教育的机会——即每个儿童,不管其本身的能力大小与否,都有权利在学习上最大限度地得到帮助。最近的法庭裁决已再次确定了所有儿童——不论残疾与否——都有接受相适应的教育的权利,并已命令公立学校采取必要的措施来提供这种教育。作为回应,学校也在调整课程安排,使授课能够适应特殊儿童,适应那些不能从常规课程中真正获益的儿童的需要。

 

 

 

 

 

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