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考研英语阅读理解真题及详解No.62

[日期:06-03] 来源:网络  作者:未知 [字体: ]
考研英语阅读理解真题及详解No.62


 

  Personality is to a large extent inherent — A-type parents usually bring about A-type offspring. But the environment must also have a profound effect, since if competition is important to the parents, it is likely to become a major factor in the lives of their children.

  One place where children soak up A characteristics is school, which is, by its very nature, a highly competitive institution. Too many schools adopt the "win at all costs" moral standard and measure their success by sporting achievements. The current passion for making children compete against their classmates or against the clock produces a two-layer system, in which competitive A-types seem in some way better than their B-type fellows. Being too keen to win can have dangerous consequences: remember that Pheidippides, the first marathon runner, dropped dead seconds after saying: "Rejoice, we conquer!"

  By far the worst form of competition in schools is the disproportionate emphasis on examinations. It is a rare school that allows pupils to concentrate on those things they do well. The merits of competition by examination are somewhat questionable, but competition in the certain knowledge of failure is positively harmful.

  Obviously, it is neither practical nor desirable that all A youngsters change into B's. The world needs types, and schools have an important duty to try to fit a child's personality to his possible future employment. It is top management.

  If the preoccupation of schools with academic work was lessened, more time might be spent teaching children surer values. Perhaps selection for the caring professions, especially medicine, could be made less by good grades in chemistry and more by such considerations as sensitivity and sympathy. It is surely a mistake to choose our doctors exclusively from A- type stock. B's are important and should be encouraged.

63. According to the passage, A-type individuals are usually ________.
  [A] impatient
  [B] considerate
  [C] aggressive
  [D] agreeable

64. The author is strongly opposed to the practice of examinations at schools because ________.
  [A] the pressure is too great on the students
  [B] some students are bound to fail
  [C] failure rates are too high
  [D] the results of examinations are doubtful

65. The selection of medical professionals is currently based on ________.
  [A] candidates' sensitivity
  [B] academic achievements
  [C] competitive spirit
  [D] surer values

66. From the passage we can draw the conclusion that ________.
  [A] the personality of a child is well established at birth
  [B] family influence dominates the shaping of one's characteristics
  [C] the development of one's personality is due to multiple factors
  [D] B-type characteristics can find no place in a competitive society


重点词汇

inherent /in5hiErEnt/ (固有的;天生的)即in+her(e)+ent,in-在里面,here词根“黏着”=stick,-ent形容词后缀,“黏着在里面的”→固有的。同根词:adhere(v.黏附;坚持)←ad(=to)+here;coherent(黏着的)←co(=together)+her(e)+ent。I am not in the least disturbed when people regard my legs intently. I know they are doing so in pursuance of their inherent artistic instinct.当人们目不转睛地盯着我的双腿时,我丝毫不觉得不安。我明白他们这样做是出于天生的艺术直觉。←这是一位舞蹈家MM说的。

profound /prE5faund/ (深刻的;渊博的)即pro+found,pro-向前,found词根“基底”(如foundation→found+ation→基础),“向前直探到底的”→渊博的。The opposite of a correct statement is a false statement. But the opposite of a profound truth may well be another profound truth.一种正确说法的对立物是一种错误的说法。一种深刻的真理的对立物则很可能是另一种深刻的真理。

soak up 吸收。

marathon /5mArEWEn/ (马拉松)用谐音记。这种全长421954米的长跑比赛,是对运动员体力与意志力的考验。

rejoice /ri5dVCis/ (使欣喜)即re+joice,re-反复,joice=joy,“使反复高兴”→使欣喜。Why is it that we rejoice at a birth and grieve at a funeral? Is it because we are not the person concerned?为什么我们在有人出生时高兴,在有人入葬时悲伤?是否由于自己不是当事者?

disproportionate /7disprE5pC:FEnit/ (不成比例的)即dis+proportion+ate,dis-否定前缀,proportion比例,-ate此处为形容词后缀。Literature happens to be the only occupation in which wages are not given in proportion to the goodness of the work done.文学碰巧是唯一的这么一种职业,其报酬与所做工作的优异不成比例。

preoccupation /pri(:)7Ckju5peiFEn/ (全神贯注)即pre+occup(y)+ation,pre-在前,occupy占据,-ation名词后缀,“在别的事物前占据注意力”→全神贯注。

consideration /kEnsidE5reiFEn/ (考虑;体谅;需考虑的事)←consider考虑+ation;considerate /kEn5sidErit/ (考虑周到的;体谅的)←consider+ate。Labor is the superior of capital, and deserves much the higher consideration.劳动高于资本,理应得到多得多的报酬。A child that lives with sharing learns to be considerate.同意分享的孩子知道为人着想。

难句解析

①But the environment must also have a profound effect, since if competition is important to the parents, it is likely to become a major factor in the lives of their children.
▲本句的主干是... the environment must also have a profound effect。后面的since引导一个原因状语从句,而这个从句又是一个if引导的条件主从复合句。
△注意profound的词义为“意义深远的”。另外要看到最后一个逗号后面的it所指代的是competition。

②One place where children soak up A characteristics is school, which is, by its very nature, a highly competitive institution.
▲本句的主干是One place... is school,这个简单句的主语和谓语都有一个定语从句修饰,前面的是限定性的,而后面的是非限定性的,并且在其里面还有一个插入成分by its very nature。
△可以先抓主干,然后再分析那两个定语从句,另外注意soak up的意思是“吸收,摄取”,其实即使我们不是很清楚这个词组的意思,只要我们抓住soak的基本意思“浸泡,浸湿,浸透”,词组的意思也能猜出来。

③The current passion for making children compete against their classmates or against the clock produces a two-layer system, in which competitive A-types seem in some way better than their B-type fellows.
▲本句的主干是The current passion... produces a two-layer system,passion后面的介词for的宾语比较复杂,是一个make sb. do sth.的结构,而主句的宾语a two-layer system后面有一个非限定性的定语从句。
△可以先抓主干,然后再分析其它成分,另外在理解的时候也要有一定的想象力,比如compete against the clock不能从字面上理解为“和钟表竞争”,而应该理解成“与时间竞争/和时间赛跑”。

④The merits of competition by examination are somewhat questionable, but competition in the certain knowledge of failure is positively harmful.
▲本句由两个子句构成,中间有一个but表示意思的转折。
△要正确理解本句,重点在于抓住单词的正确意思。questionable可疑的,值得疑问的;而后面的knowledge如果理解成“知识”那么这句话就怎么也看不懂了,在这里它的意思应该是“知道,知晓”,因此in the knowledge of应被理解为“在了解……的情况下”。

⑤Perhaps selection for the caring professions, especially medicine, could be made less by grades in chemistry and more by such considerations as sensitivity and sympathy.
▲本句的主干是... selection... could be made less by... and more by...。两个逗号隔开的是对于caring professions的进一步具体说明。
△注意在阅读的时候抓住less... and more...的结构,同时注意more后面的可能要更加重要一些。

试题解析

63. [C]
  意为:攻击性的,好斗的。
  文章第一、二、三段都提到:A型性格的人在竞争的环境中成长,形成了他们的性格特征。第二段第三句直接用competitive(争强好胜的,爱竞争的)一词描述A型性格的人。
  A意为:缺乏耐心的、不耐心的。这也许是他们有时候所表现出的性格特征,但不是他们的一般性性格特征。
  B意为:体贴人的,为人着想的。这与事实形成鲜明的对比。
  D意为:和蔼的,易相处的,使人愉快的。

64. [B] 意为:有些学生肯定不及格。
  be bound to意为:肯定、注定。问题中be opposed意为“反对”。第三段指出,学校中最糟糕的竞争方式(by far用于强调最高级形式)是极力强调考试(disproportionate意为:不相称的,过分的),很少有学校让学生集中精力做自己善于做的事情。通过考试来竞争有无益处(merits)是个值得探讨的问题(questionable),但是,明知道自己会失败还去竞争的做法肯定(对人的心理,如:自信心、自我认识等)是有害的。
  A意为:给学生造成的压力过大。
  C意为:不及格率过高。
  [A]、[C]文中都末提到。
  D意为:考试成绩(或结果)值得怀疑。
  这与原文表达的内容不一样,原文并非是说考试成绩是否真正反映学生的真实水平或能力值得怀疑,而是说考试这种形式作为—个教学环节是否合适值得进一步探讨。

65. [B]
  原文最后一段指出,如果学校不过多地注重于(preoccupation... with)学习结果,就可以花更多的时间教些更有价值的东西。选择护理方面的人——尤其是医疗护理人员——也许应该看他们是否心细、是否有同情心,而不应看他们化学成绩如何。只从A型性格的人中选择医生的做法是不可取的,B型性格的人也是社会所需要的,应该受到相应的鼓励。在这段里.作者对现在人的培养及选择标准进行了批评。B意为:学习成绩(或学术成就)。问题中currently意为:目前,当前。
  A意为:申请者的敏感程度。指:他是否对他人的行为敏感,即是否细心。
  C意为:竞争精神。原文是说根据成绩,即:看重的是结果。
  D意为:更可靠的价值。即:更可靠或可依赖或有价值(对社会有用)的东西。

66. [C]
  文章第一段指出,个性在很大程度上是先天形成的(inherent),但是,环境对它也有深刻影响,环境包括社会、学校与家庭。本文主要谈论了学校教育对学生的性格形成的影响。C意为:个性的发展受多种(multiple)因素的影响。
  A意为:儿童的个性在出生时早已确立。
  B意为:家庭对儿童性格特征的形成起主导作用。
  [A]、[B]两个选择项都不正确,因为,这两种说法都是片面的、极端的。儿童的个性发展受多种因素的影响。
  D意为:在高度竞争的社会中,B型性格的人是不需要的(或是找不到位置的)。这正是作者想要驳斥的观点。作者指出:世界需要各种性格的人。另请参阅第65题题解。

全文翻译

  性格在很大程度上是先天形成的——A型性格的父母会有A型性格的子女。但环境也一定对其有深刻的影响,因为如果竞争对父母来说很重要的话,那它也可能成为孩子生活中的一个重要因素。
  让孩子吸收A型性格的一个地方是学校。学校,就其本质而言,是高度竞争的机构。很多学校采用“不惜一切代价获取成功”的道德标准并通过炫耀成绩来估量孩子们是否成功。目前热衷于让孩子与同学竞争或与时间赛跑造成了一种双重体制,在这种体制中,竞争性的A型学生在某些方面似乎比B型的学生要好。过分地热衷于获胜会产生危险的后果:记住,第一位跑马拉松的费迪皮迪兹在说完“欢呼吧,我们赢了”之后几秒便倒地而死。
  学校里最糟糕的竞争形式就是不恰当的强调考试。很少有学校允许学生集中精力做他们能做好的事。以考试竞争这种做法的好处本身有点值得怀疑,而明知有人考试会通不过的情况下还要进行竞争,则肯定是有害的。
  显然,要将所有A型孩子变成B型孩子既不现实也不可取。这个世界需要各种性格的人,一个重要职责是使孩子的性格适合将来可能从事的工作。这才是最好的管理理念。
  如果学校对学业的强调减少一些,也许就有更多的时间教孩子更重要的价值观念。也许对护理职业——特别是医疗护理人员——的选择应少注重化学成绩而多关注他们是否敏感、是否有同情心。只从A型性格的人员中挑选医生的确是个错误。B型性格的人非常重要,应该受到鼓励。

 

 

 

 

 

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