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考研英语阅读理解真题及详解No.61

[日期:06-03] 来源:网络  作者:未知 [字体: ]

考研英语阅读理解真题及详解No.61



 

  In such a changing, complex society formerly simple solutions to informational needs become complicated. Many of life's problems which were solved by asking family members, friends or colleagues are beyond the capability of the extended family to resolve. Where to turn for expert information and how to determine which expert advice to accept are questions facing many people today.

  In addition to this, there is the growing mobility of people since World War Ⅱ. As families move away from their stable community, their friends of many years, their extended family relationships, the informal flow of information is cut off, and with it the confidence that information will be available when needed and will be trustworthy and reliable. The almost unconscious flow of information about the simplest aspects of living can be cut off. Thus, things once learned subconsciously through the casual communications of the extended family must be consciously learned.

  Adding to social changes today is an enormous stockpile of information. The individual now has more information available than any generation, and the task of finding that one piece of information relevant to his or her specific problem is complicated, time-consuming, and sometimes even overwhelming.

  Coupled with the growing quantity of information is the development of technologies which enable the storage and delivery of more information with greater speed to more locations than has ever been possible before. Computer technology makes it possible to store vast amounts of data in machine-readable files, and to program computers to locate specific information. Telecommunications developments enable the sending of messages via television, radio, and very shortly, electronic mail to bombard people with multitudes of messages. Satellites have extended the power of communications to report events at the instant of occurrence. Expertise can be shared world wide through teleconferencing, and problems in dispute can the settled without the participants leaving their homes and/or jobs to travel to a distant conference site. Technology has facilitated the sharing of information and the storage and delivery of information, thus making more information available to more people.

  In this world of change and complexity, the need for information is of greatest importance . Those people who have accurate, reliable up-to-date information to solve the day-to-day problems, the critical problems of their business, social and family life, will survive and succeed. "Knowledge is power" may well be the truest saying and access to information may be the most critical requirement of all people.

59. The word "it" (line 3, paragraph 2) most probably refers to ________.
  [A] the lack of stable communities
  [B] the breakdown of informal information channels
  [C] the increased mobility of families
  [D] the growing number of people moving from place to place

60. The main problem people may encounter today arises from the fact that ________.
  [A] they have to learn new things consciously
  [B] they lack the confidence of securing reliable and trustworthy information
  [C] they have difficulty obtaining the needed information readily
  [D] they can hardly carry out casual communications with an extended family

61. From the passage we can infer that ________.
  [A] electronic mail will soon play a dominant role in transmitting messages
  [B] it will become more difficult for people to keep secrets in an information era
  [C] people will spend less time holding meetings or conferences
  [D] events will be reported on the spot mainly through satellites

62. We can learn from the last paragraph that ________.
  [A] it is necessary to obtain as much knowledge as possible
  [B] people should make the best use of the information accessible
  [C] we should realize the importance of accumulating information
  [D] it is of vital importance to acquire needed information efficiently


重点词汇

subconsciously /sQb5kCnFEsli/ (下意识地)←sub下+conscious有意识的+ly。

stockpile /5stCkpail/ (v.n.积蓄,贮存)←stock存储+pile堆积。

expertise /7ekspE5ti:z/ (专门知识)←expert专家+ise后缀,“专家所掌握的东西”。

participant /pB:5tisipEnt/ (参与者)即parti+cip+ant,parti(=part),cip(=cap)抓,-ant后缀表人,“抓取部分东西的人”→参与分享的人→参与者。参participation(参加;分享),2001年Passage 1。

facilitate /fE5siliteit/ (使便利)即fac+il(e)+itate,fac=fic词根“做”(参artificial←art+i+fic+ial,2002年Text 2),-ile后缀“易于……的”,-itate动词后缀,“使易于做的”→使便利。名词形式为facility(熟练);facilities(设施;便利条件)。It would facilitate matters if you were more co-operative.如果你再合作一点的话,事情就变得更容易了。It is not helps, but obstacles, not facilities, but difficulties, that make men.成就人的不是帮助而是障碍,不是便利而是困难。

breakdown /5breikdaun/ (n.崩溃;故障)←break+down。a nervous breakdown 神经衰弱。

dominant /5dCminEnt/ (支配的,占优势的)←domin+ant,domin词根“支配”,-ant后缀。参predominance(优势),2000年Passage 1。

难句解析

①Many of life's problems which were solved by asking family members, friends or colleagues are beyond the capability of the extended family to resolve.
▲本句的主干是Many life's problems... are beyond the capability...。problems后面是一个由which引导的定语从句,而capability后面也是修饰成分。
△首先要理解be beyond the capability的意思。在考研的阅读中beyond引导的各种短语层出不穷,这里的意思是“在……的能力之外”。另外,extended family是指“扩展型家庭,几代同堂或者是包含各种亲戚关系的家庭”。

②Where to turn for expert information and how to determine which expert advice to accept are questions facing many people today.
▲本句的主语由两个并列的结构Where to turn for expert information和how to determine which expert advice to accept构成,表语是questions,后面的facing many people today修饰questions。
△首先要注意断句,再看清复杂的主语就能够理解本句的意思,另外注意turn for相当于ask for。

③As families move away from their stable community, their friends of many years, their extended family relationships, the informal flow of information is cut off, and with it the confidence that information will be available when needed and will be trustworthy and reliable.
▲本句较难,首先应该看到主句就是the informal flow of information is cut off,前面的部分是一个as引导的伴随/原因从句,而在主句后面的只是一个名词性的词组,其核心词是the confidence,前面的with it是个介词结构修饰the confidence,后面的that information will be available when needed and will be trustworthy and reliable只不过是the confidence的同位语,为了方便理解,我们也可以在句末的地方加一个“is gone”,这样就可以把主句后面的部分理解为一个句子:the confidence is gone。
△首先要看清句子结构,另外注意and with it the confidence中的it指代的是整个主句the informal flow of information is cut off。

④Thus, things once learned subconsciously through the casual communications of the extended family must be consciously learned.
▲本句的主干就是things... must be consciously learned。things后面有一个定语从句。
△看清句子结构,并且注意subconsciously与consciously之间的对比。

⑤The individual now has more information available than any generation, and the task of finding that one piece of information relevant to his or her specific problem is complicated, time-consuming, and sometimes even overwhelming.
▲本句由两个并列的子句构成,之间以and连接。前面的有一个more... than...的结构,而后面的主干是the task is complicated, time-consuming, and sometimes even overwhelming。主语task后面的介词of的宾语比较长。
△看清句子结构,可以把它一分为二,同时注意最后的三个形容词有一定的递进意味。另外注意that one piece of information中的that用来强调one piece of information。

⑥Telecommunications developments enable the sending of messages via television, radio, and very shortly, electronic mails to bombard people with multitudes of messages.
▲本句的主语是telecommunications developments,谓语是enable,主要应该看清enable的宾语是两个并列成分:the sending of messages via television,radio和very shortly, electronic mails to bombard people with multitudes of messages。
△本句的阅读重点在断句,一定不能把television,radio,electronic mails看成是介词via的三个并列宾语。如果这样理解,那么后面的题目是做不对的。另外,虽然bombard一词超纲,我们通过其基本词形与bomb类似也能猜出其意思。

⑦Expertise can be shared world wide through teleconferencing, and problems in dispute can be settled without the participants leaving their homes and/or jobs to travel to a distant conference site.
▲本句由两个结构相仿的子句用and连接而成,它们的结构都是sth. can be done。后面的部分有一个介词without结构,比较复杂。
△注意看清句子结构,里面一些词汇如expertise(专家知识),teleconferencing(远程会议)等,我们都可以用构词法把其意思推出来。

⑧"Knowledge is power" may well be the truest saying and access to information may be the most critical requirement of all people.
▲本句由两个结构相仿的子句用and连接而成,前面一个的主语是个从句Knowledge is power,后面的主语是access to information。
△注意看清句子结构,同时注意断句。

试题解析

59. [B]
  第二段指出,第二次世界大战以后,人口的流动性(mobility)变大,一个家庭离开了自己原来的居住区,离开了多年的朋友,不再住在大家庭里(extended family指:三世或四世同堂的家庭),这样,对这个家庭来说,日常的(informal)信息交流没有了(is cut off)。随着日常的信息交流渠道的消失(the breakdown of informal information channels),人们的信心也没有了:他们过去相信需要时总能得到可信可靠的信息。
  A意为:社会缺乏稳定。
  C意为:家庭增加了流动性。
  D意为:越来越多的人流动不定。
  可见,[A]、[C]、[D]表达的内容近似,因此,都不对。而且,如果它们中任何一个正确,那么,原文句中the confidence就要从肯定方面理解,即:人口的流动性使人们更有信心……,这显然与原文第二段表达的内容是相矛盾的。

60. [C]
  意为:他们对所需的信息不能唾手可得。
  readily在此不是“有准备地”之意,而是“随时随地”之意。原文第二段指出,随着社会的流动性,人们间的日常的信息交流不存在了。过去一些生活的最基本方面(the simplest aspects)的信息交流几乎是不自觉(或无意识)地(unconscious)进行的,但是现在却不行了,过去下意识地(subconsciously)——随处随时地——可以通过大家庭内部的日常(casual)交流所了解到的(learn)信息现在必须有意识地去了解(或获得)。第二段指出,除了社会的变化以外,现代社会信息的积累量(stockpile)大增,这使得寻找相关信息的过程变得更繁琐,更花时间(time-consuming),有时也很迫切。第三段的最后一句在总结全段时也指出:技术使更多的人可以利用更多的信息。这里强调的是信息量,并非信息随时随处可得。
  A意为:他们不得不有意识地去了解新事物。这不是一个“问题”,甚至不是主要(main)问题,这仅是指他们了解信息的方式。
  B意为:现在他们缺乏获得可靠信息的信心。原文只是说:随着日常交流的缺乏,过去唾手可得的可靠信息不得不经过其他途径(如:技术手段)去获得了。可见,[B]表达的内容与原文表达的内容并不相符。
  D意为:他们几乎不能同大家庭进行日常交流了。如果这是一个问题的话,这也绝对不是主要问题。而且,这句话说得不够严谨,太绝对化。
  考虑这个题时请考生参阅第59题题解。

61. [A]
  第四段第三句指出,随着电信事业的发展,通过电视、无线电并将在不久的将来(very shortly)通过电子邮件的方式所传递的信息数以千计地送到人们手上。该句中,bombard一词原义为“轰炸”、“连珠炮式地落向”,这里用于比喻量大。multitudes of也指“大量的”。
  A意为:电子邮件(electronic mail)不久将成为传递信息的主要(dominant)手段。
  B意为:在信息时代(era),保守秘密愈难。信息传递媒介的增加与保守秘密没有直接关系,而且,文中任何地方都未暗示这一点。
  C意为:开会时间会减少(也可以理解为:开会次数会减少)。第四段第五句指出,(远距离)电话会议可以使人相互交流(专门)知识(expertise),解决问题无需再采用将各地的人聚在一起的会议形式。可见,这里只是说会议开得更方便,并未说开短会或少开会。
  D意为:事件报道将主要采用卫星直播形式。原文第四句指出,卫星的使用扩大了现场(at the instance of occurrence)直播事件的力度。

62. [D]
  在最后一段作者指出,当今世界是一个多变、复杂的世界,信息对人至关重要(of greastest importance)。人们要学会利用准确、可靠、最新的(up-to-date)信息来解决的日常(day-to-day)问题以及他们工作和社会交往、家庭生活中的重大(critical)问题,只有这样的人才能生存、才能成功。“知识就是力量”这样的说法再正确不过了,学会掌握信息(access to information)是对所有人的一个最重要要求。D意为:有效地掌握所需信息至关重要。
  A意为:应尽量多地获取信息。这里只强调了信息的量,却未强调信息的质(如:准确、可靠、最新)。实际上,正因为信息的量增大了,才需要人们学会找出所需的信息,这才是这一段所主要说明的。
  B意为:人们应充分利用可得到的(accessible)信息。正如我们在分析本题时所一再指出的,本段所强调的是善于获得信息的重要性(如,在本段三句话中,作者使用了如下措词:the need for information〈第一句主句〉,who have accurate, reliable up-to-date information, access to information〈第三句后半句主语〉)。
  C意为:我们应该意识到积累信息的重要性。这也不对,参阅本题对选择项[A]的分析。

全文翻译

  在这样一个不断变化的复杂社会里,以前简单地获取信息的方法变得复杂了。许多请教家人、朋友或同事便能解决的生活问题,现在却超出了大家庭的能力范围。去哪儿寻找专家信息,如何确定接受哪条专家建议成了当今许多人面临的问题。
  除此之外,二战以来,人口流动性日益增大。随着家庭远离稳定的社区、多年的朋友。大家庭的种种关系,非正式的信息交流被切断了。同时在需要时就能得到可靠可信的信息的信心也随之丧失了。关于生活最基本的方方面面的信息的无意识交流也被切断。因此,曾经在大家庭内部通过日常交流就可下意识学到的东西,现在却要有意识地去学。
  除了当今的社会变化之外,还有信息量巨大的问题。今天,个人可获得的信息比任何时代的人都多,而要找到一条与自己问题相关的信息既复杂又耗时,有时甚至相当困难。
  伴随着信息量不断增长的是技术的发展,这些技术使得人们能够比过去以更快的速度往更多的地方储存和发送更多的信息,这在以前是不可能的。计算机技术使人们可以把大量的数据储存到机读文件里,还能通过计算机编程找到某一信息。电信技术的发展使人们可能通过电视、无线电传送信息,不久之后,通过电子邮件发送的大量信息,将对人们实施信息轰炸。人造卫星拓展了通讯能力,可以对事件进行现场报道。通过远程会议,专家知识能在全世界范围内被分享,有争议的问题也能被解决,同时人们也不必放下工作、别离家人,大老远去开会了。技术的发展促进了信息分享、信息存储和信息传递,这就使更多的人得到更多
的信息。
  在这个多变而又复杂的世界里,对信息的要求最为重要。那些拥有准确、可信、最新信息并用来解决日常问题、工作中的重要问题以及社会和家庭问题的人就能生存下去并取得成功。“知识就是力量”是再正确不过了,获取信息也许是所有人最迫切的要求。

 

 

 

 

 

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