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考研英语阅读理解真题及详解No.60

[日期:05-31] 来源:网络  作者:未知 [字体: ]

考研英语阅读理解真题及详解No.60




 

  There are two basic ways to see growth: one as a product, the other as a process. People have generally viewed personal growth as an external result or product that can easily be identified and measured. The worker who gets a promotion, the student whose grades improve, the foreigner who learns a new language — all these are examples of people who have measurable results to show for their efforts.

  By contrast, the process of personal growth is much more difficult to determine, since by definition it is a journey and not the specific signposts or landmarks along the way. The process is not the road itself, but rather the attitudes and feelings people have, their caution or courage, as they encounter new experiences and unexpected obstacles. In this process, the journey never really ends; there are always new ways to experience the world, new ideas to try, new challenges to accept.

  In order to grow, to travel new roads, people need to have a willingness to take risks, to confront the unknown, and to accept the possibility that they may "fail" at first. How we see ourselves as we try a new way of being is essential to our ability to grow. Do we perceive ourselves as quick and curious? If so, then we tend to take more chances and to be more open to unfamiliar experiences. Do we think we're shy and indecisive? Then our sense of timidity can cause us to hesitate, to move slowly, and not to take a step until we know the ground is safe. Do we think we're slow to adapt to change or that we're not smart enough to cope with a new challenge? Then we are likely to take a more passive role or not try at all.

  These feelings of insecurity and self-doubt are both unavoidable and necessary if we are to change and grow. If we do not confront and overcome these internal fears and doubts, if we protect ourselves too much, then we cease to grow. We become trapped inside a shell of our own making.

55. A person is generally believed to achieve personal growth when ________.
  [A] he has given up his smoking habit
  [B] he has made great efforts in his work
  [C] he is keen on learning anything new
  [D] he has tried to determine where he is on his journey

56. In the author's eyes, one who views personal growth as a process would ________.
  [A] succeed in climbing up the social ladder
  [B] judge his ability to grow from his own achievements
  [C] face difficulties and take up challenges
  [D] aim high and reach his goal each time

57. When the author says "a new way of being" (line 2, paragraph 3) he is referring to ________.
  [A] a new approach to experiencing the world
  [B] a new way of taking risks
  [C] a new method of perceiving ourselves
  [D] a new system of adaptation to change

58. For personal growth, the author advocates all of the following EXCEPT ________.
  [A] curiosity about more chances
  [B] promptness in self-adaptation
  [C] open-mindedness to new experiences
  [D] avoidance of internal fears and doubts


重点词汇

external /eks5tE:nl/ (外部的),反义词为internal(内部的)。Everybody acts not only under external compulsion but also in accordance with inner necessity.每个人的行动都不仅处于外部的推动,也同样依据内在的需要。

signpost /5sainpEust/ (路标)←sign+post。

landmark /5lAndmB:k/ (界标)←land+mark。

obstacle /5CbstEkl/ (障碍)即ob+st+acle,ob-前缀“阻碍”,st词根=stand,-acle后缀表物,“站在那里阻碍的东西”→障碍。Victory is not the end but a phase to the end. It is no more than the removal of obstacles.胜利不是目的而是达到目的的一个阶段。它不过是对障碍的消除。Some minds seem almost to create themselves, springing up under every disadvantage and working their solitary but irresistible way through a thousand obstacles.有些人仿佛自己创造自己——在每次逆境中崛起,穿过重重阻碍,孤独但义无反顾地开辟自己的道路。obstacles — things a person sees when they take their mind off their goal 障碍——当一个人的大脑脱离自己的目标时所看到的东西。

curiosity /7kjuEri5Csiti/ (好奇心;古玩)即curios+ity,curios(=curious)好奇的,-ity名词后缀,“引起好奇的东西”→古玩。参curiously,2001年Passage 5。Curiosity is a scholar's virtue.好奇心是学者的美德。There are two sorts of curiosity — the momentary and the permanent. The momentary is concerned with the odd appearance on the surface of things. The permanent is attracted by the amazing and consecutive life that flows on beneath the surface of things.有两种好奇心——一种是短暂的,一种是永久的。短暂的好奇心关注事物表面的奇异外观;永久的好奇心被事物表面之下流动着的令人惊讶并连续的生命所吸引。curiosity — ①the key to creativity ②a willing, a proud, an eager confession of ignorance ③the first step to betrayal 好奇心——①打开创造力的钥匙 ②心甘情愿地、自豪地、急切地承认自己的无知 ③背叛的第一步。

难句解析

①The workers who gets a promotion, the student whose grades improve, the foreigner who learns a new language — all these are examples of people who have measurable results to show for there efforts.
▲本句破折号前面是三个并列的名词词组,其核心词是the workers,the student和the foreigner,它们后面都有一个定语从句,而破折号后面的部分是一个简单的主系表结构。
△注意破折号前面的只是一些例子,在看不懂的情况下可以跳过,当然如果能够精确理解它们的意思对理解作者把成长视为一种过程也有帮助。

②The process is not the road itself, but rather the attitudes and feelings people have, their caution or courage, as they encounter new experiences and unexpected obstacles.
▲本句主干结构就是not... but,注意but后面的成分较复杂,有四个并列的成分attitudes,feelings,caution,courage,在它们的后面有一个时间状语从句。
△注意抓not... but结构中but后面的部分,这里是阅读的重点。

③In this process, the journey never really ends; there are always new ways to experience the world, new ideas to try, new challenges to accept.
▲可以用分号把句子一分为二,后面一半的表语比较复杂,有三个new的东西:new ways,new ideas,new challenges。
△在此句和此句的上下文中,字面意思的理解可能不成问题,但考生应该真正理解作者在这里把人生的成长视为一种过程而不是一个简单的结果这一事实。

④In order to grow, to travel new roads, people need to have a willingness to take risks, to confront the unknown, and to accept the possibility that they may "fail" at first.
▲本句开始的两个不定式是目的状语,主句结构是people need to have a willingness to do sth.,后面又是三个并列的不定式。
△在读到这一句时我们就应该对此文作者的文风有一个大致把握,本文的作者比较喜欢使用排比结构来使其论述显得更加强有力。

⑤If we do not confront and overcome these internal fears and doubts, if we protect ourselves too much, then we cease to grow. We become trapped inside a shell of our own making.
▲第一个句子以两个if引导的条件从句开始,核心在then的后面,后面的句子中注意become后面的过去分词作表语。
△开始也是排比,比较容易理解,后半句里有一个比喻,shell指的是“自我封闭”,大家理解起来也没有什么问题。

试题解析

55. [A]
  第一段指出,人们对成长有两种基本看法:有人将之视为结果(product),有人将之视为一个过程(process)。一般来讲,人倾向于将个人的成长(或发展)看作是一个易于识别和测量的外在的结果,如:工人晋职,学生成绩(grades)好,学会一门外语。这都是他们做出努力(efforts)之后所取得的可衡量的结果。[A]表达的内容原文虽未提到,但我们可以做一个简单的类推。一旦形成习惯,戒烟是很不易的,是需要决心与毅力的,正像一个学生要取得好成绩必须做出努力一样。
  B意为:他对工作尽了巨大的心力。但是,这里却未提到尽心尽力后带来什么样的结果,也许是徒劳无益呢?
  C意为:他热衷于学习新东西。be keen on意为:热衷于,想要。与[B]一样,这里也未提及结果:他是否学会新东西?
  D意为:他想看看(或确立一下)自己在发展的道路(journey)上走到哪儿了。这更没道理了。

56. [C] 意为:面对困难,接受挑战。
  在第二段,作者指出,将发展看作是一个过程的人关心的不是结果,他们更多地是注重人面对新的体验(experiences)与不期而至的障碍时所表现出的态度与感受:是谨慎还是表示出勇气。发展永无止境,对外部世界的体验不止一种,总是有新的思路需要检验,新的挑战(challenges)去接受。另请参阅第三段第一句。
  A意为:成功地爬上了社会阶梯(即:成功地进入社会上层)。这是一个结果,而不是一个过程,因此,是不正确的,而且,原文并未提到这一点。
  B意为:从他自己的成就来判断其发展(潜)力。这显然是从结果的角度来看待人的发展。
  D意为:确立高的(发展)目标(aim high),而且每次都实现自己的目标。原文并未提及“目标”的确立,而且该选择项的后半部分(reach his goal each time)显然又是在谈结果。

57. [A]
  在该句中,being在此意为:生存,存在,第三段第二句指出,当我们用新的方式生存(或体验世界)时,我们对自己的看法对我们能否发展至关重要。下文举了几个例子来阐述这一观点。如果我们认为自己行动敏捷,喜欢刨根问底,在实际的行动上,我们就会倾向于冒险(take more chances),更欢迎(be more open to)新的体验。如果我们自认为天生怯懦并优柔寡断,我们就会遇事犹豫不前,行动迟缓,只有感到安全可靠时才会挪动一步。如果我们自认为适应变化很慢或不够精明,无法对付新的挑战,那么,我们很可能做事被动或干脆不做。可见,我们的态度决定了我们的生活方式。
  A意为:体验世界(即:生活)的新方式(或方法)。
  B意为:新的冒险(take risk)方法。这有些片面。
  C意为:认识自我的新方法。这是指态度方面,而不是指实际行为方面。
  D意为:适应变化的新方法(system)。这也失之片面。

58. [D]
  意为:避免内心的恐惧感与(自我)怀疑。
  在最后一段,作者指出,不安全感与自我怀疑不仅是无法避免的(unavoidable),而且是必要的,否则,我们就无法变化、发展。关键是要敢于面对(confront)并克服这种心理,如果我们一味地求安全,就不会有所长进,就等于是作茧自缚(We become trapped inside a shell of our own making)。
  A意为:对更多的冒险(指:做新的事情)持好奇态度。即:总希望尝试新的事情。
  B意为:自我调节快。即:适应新事物快。
  C意为:对新的体验持欢迎态度。
  对选择项[A]、[C]、[D]的理解请参阅第57题题解。

全文翻译

  人们对成长有两种基本看法:一是将其视作结果;一是将其视为过程。人们通常把个人成长看做是易于识别和测量的外在结果。工人得到升迁,学生成绩提高,外国人学会了一门新的语言——这些都可表明人们付出努力之后,取得了可衡量的成绩。
  相比之下,对成长过程的测定就难多了,因为从定义上讲,它是一次旅行,不是沿途上的某个路标或界标。成长过程不是道路本身,而是当遭遇新的情况或未曾预料的坎坷时所持的态度和情感,是慎重行事还是勇往直前。在这个过程中,旅行永远不会真的结束;总会有新的方法去体验世界,新的思想去尝试,新的挑战去面对。
  要想成长,要想探索新的道路,人们就得乐于冒险,乐于面对未知世界,并敢于接受初次尝试便失败的可能性。我们在尝试新的生存方式时如何看待自己对我们能力的培养是至关重要的。自以为行动敏捷而又好奇吗?如果这样,我们就会去抓住更多机会,更加勇于面对陌生的体验。自以为害羞而优柔寡断吗?那么这种恐惧感便会使我们犹豫不决,行动迟缓,而且在确保安全无虞后才前进一步。自以为适应变化的速度很慢,不够精明,无法应付新挑战吗?那么我们就可能采取消极姿态,或根本不去尝试。
  如果我们要变化、要成长,那么这种不安全感、自我怀疑则是不可避免的,而且也是必要的。如果我们不能去正视并克服这些内在的恐惧和疑虑,如果我们过于自我保护,那么我们就会停止成长,陷进自己营造的壳里面。

 

 

 

 

 

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