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2012年考研英语一真题及答案

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2012

年考研英语一真题及答案

Section I Use of English

Directions:

Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark

A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark

A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

The ethical judgments of the Supreme Court justices have become an important issue

recently. The court cannot _1_ its legitimacy as guardian of the rule of law _2_ justices

behave like politicians. Yet, in several instances, justices acted in ways that _3_ the

court’s reputation for being independent and impartial.

Justice Antonin Scalia, for example, appeared at political events. That kind of

activity makes it less likely that the court’s decisions will be _4_ as impartial

judgments. Part of the problem is that the justices are not _5_by an ethics code. At the

very least, the court should make itself _6_to the code of conduct that _7_to the rest

of the federal judiciary.

This and other similar cases _8_the question of whether there is still a _9_between

the court and politics.

The framers of the Constitution envisioned law _10_having authority apart from

politics. They gave justices permanent positions _11_they would be free to _12_ those

in power and have no need to _13_ political support. Our legal system was designed to

set law apart from politics precisely because they are so closely _14_.

Constitutional law is political because it results from choices rooted in fundamental

social _15_ like liberty and property. When the court deals with social policy decisions,

the law it _16_ is inescapably political-which is why decisions split along ideological

lines are so easily _17_ as unjust.

The justices must _18_ doubts about the court’s legitimacy by making themselves _19_

to the code of conduct. That would make rulings more likely to be seen as separate from

politics and, _20_, convincing as law.

1. [A]emphasize [B]maintain [C]modify [D] recognize

2. [A]when [B]lest [C]before [D] unless

3. [A]restored [B]weakened [C]established [D] eliminated

4. [A]challenged [B]compromised [C]suspected [D] accepted

5. [A]advanced [B]caught [C]bound [D]founded

6. [A]resistant [B]subject [C]immune [D]prone

7. [A]resorts [B]sticks [C]loads [D]applies

8. [A]evade [B]raise [C]deny [D]settle

9. [A]line [B]barrier [C]similarity [D]conflict

10. [A]by [B]as [C]though [D]towards

11. [A]so [B]since [C]provided [D]though

12. [A]serve [B]satisfy [C]upset [D]replace

13. [A]confirm [B]express [C]cultivate [D]offer

14. [A]guarded [B]followed [C]studied [D]tied

15. [A]concepts [B]theories [C]divisions [D]conceptions

16. [A]excludes [B]questions [C]shapes [D]controls

17. [A]dismissed [B]released [C]ranked [D]distorted

18. [A]suppress [B]exploit [C]address [D]ignore

19. [A]accessible [B]amiable [C]agreeable [D]accountable

20. [A]by all mesns [B]atall costs [C]in a word [D]as a result

Section II Reading Comprehension

Part A

Directions:

Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A,

B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

Text 1

Come on –Everybody’s doing it. That whispered message, half invitation and half

forcing, is what most of us think of when we hear the words peer pressure. It usually

leads to no good-drinking, drugs and casual sex. But in her new book Join the Club, Tina

Rosenberg contends that peer pressure can also be a positive force through what she calls

the social cure, in which organizations and officials use the power of group dynamics

to help individuals improve their lives and possibly the word.

Rosenberg, the recipient of a Pulitzer Prize, offers a host of example of the social

cure in action: In South Carolina, a state-sponsored antismoking program called Rage

Against the Haze sets out to make cigarettes uncool. In South Africa, an HIV-prevention

initiative known as LoveLife recruits young people to promote safe sex among their peers.

The idea seems promisingand Rosenberg is a perceptive observer. Her critique of

the lameness of many pubic-health campaigns is spot-on: they fail to mobilize peer

pressure for healthy habits, and they demonstrate a seriously flawed understanding of

psychology.” Dare to be different, please don’t smoke!” pleads one billboard campaign

aimed at reducing smoking among teenagers-teenagers, who desire nothing more than fitting

in. Rosenberg argues convincingly that public-health advocates ought to take a page from

advertisers, so skilled at applying peer pressure.

But on the general effectiveness of the social cure, Rosenberg is less persuasive.

Join the Club is filled with too much irrelevant detail and not enough exploration of

the social and biological factors that make peer pressure so powerful. The most glaring

flaw of the social cure as it’s presented here is that it doesn’t work very well for

very long. Rage Against the Haze failed once state funding was cut. Evidence that the

LoveLife program produces lasting changes is limited and mixed.

There’s no doubt that our peer groups exert enormous influence on our behavior. An

emerging body of research shows that positive health habits-as well as negative

ones-spread through networks of friends via social communication. This is a subtle form

of peer pressure: we unconsciously imitate the behavior we see every day.

Far less certain, however, is how successfully experts and bureaucrats can select

our peer groups and steer their activities in virtuous directions. It’s like the teacher

who breaks up the troublemakers in the back row by pairing them with better-behaved

classmates. The tactic never really works. And that’s the problem with a social cure

engineered from the outside: in the real world, as in school, we insist on choosing our

own friends.

21. According to the first paragraph, peer pressure often emerges as

[A] a supplement to the social cure

[B] a stimulus to group dynamics

[C] an obstacle to school progress

[D] a cause of undesirable behaviors

22. Rosenberg holds that public advocates should

[A] recruit professional advertisers

[B] learn from advertisers’ experience

[C] stay away from commercial advertisers

[D] recognize the limitations of advertisements

23. In the author’s view, Rosenberg’s book fails to

[A] adequately probe social and biological factors

[B] effectively evade the flaws of the social cure

[C] illustrate the functions of state funding

[D]produce a long-lasting social effect

24. Paragraph 5shows that our imitation of behaviors

[A] is harmful to our networks of friends

[B] will mislead behavioral studies

 [C] occurs without our realizing it

[D] can produce negative health habits

25. The author suggests in the last paragraph that the effect of peer pressure is

[A] harmful

[B] desirable

[C] profound

[D] questionable

Text 2

A deal is a deal-except, apparently ,when Entergy is involved. The company, a major

energy supplier in New England, provoked justified outrage in Vermont last week when it

announced it was reneging on a longstanding commitment to abide by the strict nuclear

regulations.

Instead, the company has done precisely what it had long promised it would not

challenge the constitutionality of Vermont’s rules in the federal court, as part of a

desperate effort to keep its Vermont Yankee nuclear power plant running. It’s a stunning

move.

The conflict has been surfacing since 2002, when the corporation bought Vermont’s

only nuclear power plant, an aging reactor in Vernon. As a condition of receiving state

approval for the sale, the company agreed to seek permission from state regulators to

operate past 2012. In 2006, the state went a step further, requiring that any extension

of the plant’s license be subject to Vermont legislature’s approval. Then, too, the

company went along.

Either Entergy never really intended to live by those commitments, or it simply

didn’t foresee what would happen next. A string of accidents, including the partial

collapse of a cooling tower in 207 and the discovery of an underground pipe system leakage,

raised serious questions about both Vermont Yankee’s safety and Entergy’s management–

especially after the company made misleading statements about the pipe. Enraged by

Entergy’s behavior, the Vermont Senate voted 26 to 4 last year against allowing an

extension.

Now the company is suddenly claiming that the 2002 agreement is invalid because of

the 2006 legislation, and that only the federal government has regulatory power over

nuclear issues. The legal issues in the case are obscure: whereas the Supreme Court has

ruled that states do have some regulatory authority over nuclear power, legal scholars

say that Vermont case will offer a precedent-setting test of how far those powers extend.

Certainly, there are valid concerns about the patchwork regulations that could result

if every state sets its own rules. But had Entergy kept its word, that debate would be

beside the point.

The company seems to have concluded that its reputation in Vermont is already so

damaged that it has noting left to lose by going to war with the state. But there should

be consequences. Permission to run a nuclear plant is a poblic trust. Entergy runs 11

other reactors in the United States, including Pilgrim Nuclear station in Plymouth.

Pledging to run Pilgrim safely, the company has applied for federal permission to keep

it open for another 20 years. But as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the

company’s application, it should keep it mind what promises from Entergy are worth.

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