Welcome each to go sightseeing the traveling to the Leshan Giant Buddha scenic area. Now we saw is world famous millennium ancient Buddha - Leshan Giant Buddha. It is in the world a biggest carved stone Maitreya religion Buddha, passes the height 71 meters, the shoulder width is 24 meters, the head diameter is 10 meters, the ear has 7 meter long, the mouth and the eye length is 3.3 meters, the eyebrow and the nose length is 5.6 meters, the neck height 3 meters, refers to the length 8.3 meters, from the knee to the instep 28 meters, the foot width is 8.5 meters, on sends the hair bun to have l021. Leshan Giant Buddha grand magnificent sight, the people describe it: “The mountain is a Buddha, Buddha is a mountain”。
The Leshan Giant Buddha beginning constructs at the Emperor Xuanzong in Tanh dynasty New Year first year （also is the A.D. 713 years）， is completed Yu Tang Zhenyuan 19 years （the A.D. 803 years）， everybody was allowed to calculate, Leshan Giant Buddha stands erect to this already in 1200.
Now asks everybody to look at the Buddha two sides the rocks. This kind of rock calls the red sandstone, is an idioplasm loose, is easy the rock which makes decent, Leshan Giant Buddha is on this kind of rock carves becomes. Why then Buddha could have been through repeatedly in 1200 “wind and rain motionless An Rushan”？ First we looked Buddha locates position. Buddha is located reaches the clouds west the mountain Cloudy Slopeon, adds around the Buddha body the forest dense, geological structure stable, the Buddha body is in the river curved land sector, hides in Yu Shanti, reduced the wind and rain corrosion and the current of water washes out, therefore the rock decay is slower. Not only that, Leshan Giant Buddha also has the extremely ingenious drainage system. About Buddha after death, has the draining water cavern which is interlinked, may avoid the mountain spring to the image of Buddha Soaks Eclipse; On Buddha sends the hair bun 4th, 9, 18 respectively has Draining water Road to wrinkle the company with the Buddha body clothes booklet to become the drainage channel net, also has avoided the rain water to the Buddha body Soaks Eclipse. Obviously, Leshan Giant Buddha's design is extremely scientific. In addition, Buddha after completion, but also once has built high 13 pavilions duplicate lids, what a pity destroys Yu Mingmo the chaos caused by war.
Although Leshan Giant Buddha has the extremely perfect protection system, however in more than 1,000 years long years, it still unavoidably encountered various destruction, had naturally, also had artificially. Therefore, each dynasty all has carried on the service to it. After specially new China is founded, the government once carried on to Leshan Giant Buddha has serviced many times, what project was bigger was 1963 service. In 1982, Leshan Giant Buddha announced into the country key cultural relic preservation organ after the State Council. In 1996 Mt. Emei - Leshan Giant Buddha by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization row world nature and cultural heritage name list. At present, Leshan Giant Buddha's protection already aroused the world people's interest, the Leshan Giant Buddha oneselves has become a world people's precious inheritance.
Sea Shi Tang
Then, who was has created this wealth for us? What initially repaired Buddha the goal was? Is bringing these questions, we visit the sea teacher hall together.
The sea Shi Tangli three casts are the people who has rendered meritorious service which constructs Leshan Giant Buddha. First we settle on this, Buddha's beginning constructing - sea passes the Zen master, he is the Guizhou person, same year in insulted on the Yunshan to tie Mao Weiseng.
The ancient times Leshan three rivers afflux place, Water Potentialsuitable Ominous Fierce, frequently had the ship to destroy the event which the person perished. The sea passes the buddhist priest to show mercy the heart, prepares to construct Buddha to come the town flood. Thereupon solicits money in all directions, plans many wealth. At that time some corrupt official saw the wealth to open the eyes, prepares to extort him, the sea passed the master righteousness strict refined language to say “might gouge from item, the Buddha wealth was rare”。
The meaning is, I eye all may dig down gives you, but you gave up any idea of obtains this Buddha wealth. That corrupt official unexpectedly arbitrarily impolitely wants him to try, the sea passes Zen master Principle of righteousness Imposing to hold the plate, has dug out own both eyes. The corrupt official frightened badly, from then on did not have feels embarrassed again he. The sea passes the Zen master makes when Buddha is old, therefore when Buddha repairs shoulder department time, he had died, Buddha builds the project also therefore has stopped down. Probably crossed ten years, south the sword west Sichuan military commissioner Zhang Choujian the fine jade donation Salary Gold 200,000, continues to build Leshan Giant Buddha, because project vast, needs the giant funds, thereupon the royal government issues an order to bestow the hemp salt tax money, causes the project progress to be rapid. When Leshan Giant Buddha repairs the knee the time, continues constructing Zhang Choujian the fine jade to move no matter what a household Shangshu, proceeds to new official post to Beijing, the project once more work suspension.
After 40 years, south the sword west Sichuan military commissioner Wei Gao donates Salary Gold 502000 to continue to construct Leshan Giant Buddha. In three generation of people diligently under, around has been through repeatedly 90 years time, Leshan Giant Buddha finally thoroughly finishes, and executes the gold all over the body, the magnificent Buddha clothes and the dignified Buddha body enhances one another's beauty.
Nine tunes plank roads
Now everybody already had an preliminary understanding to Buddha, receives us to look at the panoram together through nine tunes plank roads to the Buddha foot. Under our foot nine tunes plank road is constructs together with Leshan Giant Buddha, altogether has 173 stairs, the widest place is 1.45 meters, the narrowest place only has the o 6 rice. Everybody along the way may appreciate the carved stone niche for a statue of Buddha which Cliff Wall on stays behind. These image of Buddha manners respectively different, craft exquisite, may compare favorably with with the Chinese four big rock caves images of Buddha, Regret Is their decency phenomenon is extremely serious.
We already arrived under the Buddha foot, asked everybody to gain ground looks up at Buddha, felt him to be big and the magnificent sight. Fellow tourists also could carefully have a look recently only then to discover are located the big benevolence dirty spot the small Buddha head picture.
While convenient, I again give everybody to explain Leshan Giant Buddha the religious connotation. Leshan Giant Buddha is the Tang Dynasty touches one of in crag statue artistic high-quality goods, it is a Maitreya religion Buddha. Why has to make a Maitreya religion Buddha? This worships Maitreya religion Buddha with the Tang Dynasty to have close relationship. According to the Buddhism religious doctrine, Maitreya religion Buddha will be Three th Buddha the center future Buddha, he will be symbolizing the future world light and is happy, died the after for 5.67 billion years in Buddha Buddha later to replace Buddha's status, to under Chinese Linyuen's Long Huashu broad biography Buddhist doctrine, will universal restoration. In the Buddhist literature said Maitreya religion is born can “the peace throughout the country”， therefore the people naturally longed for he can arrive as soon as possible the world, each place therefore is in vogue molds the Maitreya religion image of Buddha. To the military week time, a generation of empress Wu Zetian once issued an order to compile “Big Cloud after To be sparse”， proved she was Maitreya religion is reincarnated, the common people the worship help her to Maitreya religion to mount the imperial throne in the treatment of women as inferiors feudal period. Because Wu Zetian's promoting with great effort, causes the nation to model chisels wind of big line the Maitreya religion. Leshan Giant Buddha builds is apart from the Wu Zetian time only for more than 20 years, therefore when the sea passes builds Leshan Giant Buddha, natural selection Maitreya religion Buddha, moreover Maitreya religion Buddha will come the light and happy future Buddha since the energy band, this with will subside the flood Buddha of the Zhenjiang to request is consistent, therefore Leshan Giant Buddha's Maitreya religion status also therefore decided.
Some tourists possibly can propose this kind of question: Is Leshan Giant Buddha this Maitreya religion Buddha why dissimilar with the temple in Maitreya religion Buddha statue? This is because in temple Maitreya religion Buddha is calls according to a Chinese five generation of times name to agree this buddhist priest's image to mold becomes. Agrees this is the Zhejiang Fenghua County person, he enjoys doing charitable things, can know in advance the weather and forecast person's good and bad fortune, frequently takes a cloth sack to solicit money in all directions, in front of passing away he once said “Maitreya religion really Maitreya religion, the incarnation 110 billion, at times shows the common people, the common people from knows”， thus everybody thought he was the Maitreya religion Buddha's incarnation, in temple Maitreya religion Buddha also models his image - the cloth sack buddhist priest which is always smiles, the big stomach tolerates.
Actually in the Chinese Chinese Buddhism culture, the Maitreya religion Buddha statue change is very big, the first stage is spreads to Chinese from India the junction foot Maitreya religion; The second stage is has “the Chinese characteristic” ancient Buddha Maitreya religion; The third stage is in present temple cloth sack Maitreya religion. Leshan Giant Buddha is the continuation opens after having “the Chinese characteristic” ancient Buddha Maitreya religion. “Lives according to Maitreya religion Under after” describes, the Maitreya religion image of Buddha has “30 two phases, 80 kind of good”， this requests his five senses, the hand, the foot, the body all to have is different with average person's characteristic. The Leshan Giant Buddha entire physique unusual is refined, on sends the hair bun, the liberal double shoulder, Gao Erchang eyebrow, the circle straight nose Hole All is defers to the Buddhism ancient book the stipulation construction, but his appearance actually has the Han Nationality person's common characteristic. The Indian image of Buddha “the wide shoulder slender waist”， is nothing left on the Buddha body, displaces is the sturdy double shoulder, the full chest, has manifested the Tang Dynasty calamity still the obese beautiful fashion. Leshan Giant Buddha sits the vertical attitude is the double foot nature sagging, this “ties the type” with the Indian image of Buddha not to be dissimilar, because Buddha repairs the town water, this kind steady, is stable the person which 坐式 may take sails a boat to defeat the turbulent current rapids the confidence and the determination. The Sui and Tang dynasties time was in the Chinese Buddhism statue art history the magnificent bright stage, the statue strength has been displaying Buddha “the facial expression”。
The Leshan Giant Buddha mild-mannered and cultivated facial expression, the affable manner, as well as in the meditation contains the wisdom, in the dignity has the gentle facial features, all lets the person be able not help to have the respect and the kind feeling. I thought everybody while exclaims in surprise Leshan Giant Buddha big with magnificent sight, but also has no alternative but to acclaim its statue craft fine. Good, now I ask everybody freely to move, after ten minutes we newly repaired along 1983 reach the clouds the plank road upward to walk, visited the hemp to be vast Grave Cliff.
The hemp is vast Grave Cliff
Fellow tourists, in here, I wanted to give everybody to introduce the Leshan ancient times one kind of grave custom.
Said perhaps the grave custom, everybody quite familiar eastern Sichuan province Yangtze River both banks hang the coffin. But in western Sichuan, specially Leshan area then popular one kind of chisel Shan Weimu inters the way. Its main characteristic is: Along the shallow earthen mound, the mountain valley dig a chisel square shape the cavern, then the corpse and the coffin, the funeral object and so on releases people in the hole. The grave system structure completely imitates in the real life the house, but has a liking for from exterior, then is a each one profound mystical cave. This kind of grave because is popular to more than 1,800 year ago Eastern Han Dynasty time, therefore is called the Eastern Han Dynasty Grave Cliff. Approximately has the up to ten thousand places in the Leshan scope such Grave Cliff, but in these Grave Cliff group, most centralized, most has the representative grave group is I must lead everybody visit the hemp to be vast Grave Cliff, its long approximately 200 meters, the width approximately 25 meters, altogether have 544 graves. As everybody knows, people all unavoidably birth and death, regardless of you are optimistic facing or pessimistic facing, the life and death is the natural law which a person is unable to resist. Therefore the people have to grow one kind of hope, one kind of desire to death helpless, after hoped died, can compare the survival fashion the life. In addition at that time came under the Taoism thought influence, thought Grandmother West, female snail these deities occupied the place all was a stone building, then said chiselled Shan Weishi to be possible to become the deity, therefore this kind of grave system form gradually was popular. Eastern Han Dynasty time, Leshan area economy development quite quick, is situated at the key communication line, the population unceasingly increases, the social social class relates, the political structure also unceasingly changes, the biggest change is in the place Big Race formation and the thought culture Confucianist's influence, “loyal, the filial piety, the kernel, the letter, the festival, righteousness” the idea is most prominent. But in “kind filial piety” under the thought, lives when the filial piety raises, after dies the elaborate funeral, naturally was cannot be exempted. In order to meet this kind of need, the consumption large amount of money constructs Grave Cliff then arises at the historic moment, around popular 400 year long time.
Good, now our destination arrived, asks everybody first to gain ground has a look this Plaque Gate “the hemp to be vast Grave Cliff”。 The hemp is vast is we after death side this river, is evades the spillway by pre-qin Suchuan county Defends Too Li Bingwei which evil of the froth water opens cutting. The tomb therefore is called “the hemp to be vast Grave Cliff”。 This plaque was our literary arena great master Venerable Guo Moruo in 1965 writes writes. Wants to ask everybody in here me: You thought what Leshan most is worth as soon as looking is? Perhaps the tourist friend can without hesitation say - Leshan Giant Buddha, to? Yes. But our Guo Lao actually said, can compare favorably with with Leshan Giant Buddha only has Leshan Grave Cliff. Said with his then speech that, “Has Does Head” （the Sichuan speech, also said is has research value very much meaning）。 Therefore, arrives Leshan except view Buddha, but also should look Grave Cliff. The hemp was vast Grave Cliff once and in 1980 two time is successively evaluated in 1956 the Sichuan provincial level key cultural relic preservation organ, everybody looked nearby my right hand this inscribed text record knew. Nearby what my left hand this stele records was because in 1988 the hemp is vast Grave Cliff is evaluated the national level key cultural relic preservation organ, therefore constructed the museum. Front this Plaque Gate on writes “the hemp vast Grave Cliff museum”， is modern scholar Yang Chao writes.
Now we together visit this grave group internal structure. First, we saw is a giant draft horse chart replica, is according to the grave inside draft horse chart imitation, it displays the significance arrived inside me again to give everybody in detail to introduce. Now arrived hemp vast 1 Grave Cliff. Our at present this open area, is copies the real life construction netherworld life garden and the garden. Above the gate has the very many portraits carved stone, carving highly skilled peerlessly, its function is guides dead's soul, the soul air day, the shape soul to turn over to, but turns over to by the shape soul primarily to want the goal. At the same time, each chart also displays Advocates Grave person's different thought, the idea, the religious belief and so on. We from left to right looked, nearby here most becomes famous, most has the characteristic is this “Jingke punctures the Qin king” the chart. It reflects is take “Loyal Filial piety” as the core feudal ethics idea, also has reflected Advocates Grave the counter- Qin's thought. Receives is “West Grandmother bestows the medicine chart”。
West Grandmother is the queen mother of the west which we deifies in the fable, is in the Han Dynasty people mind blesses the immortal not to die, the flourishing population worship object. On among the chart West Grandmother sits well, to many prays kneels on the place person to execute the medicine. Can obtain does not die the medicine is the long-cherished goal matter, therefore all may see in many graves West Grandmother statue. Nearby cavern this chart is everybody entered when gate sees “the draft horse chart” the main source a moment ago. Everybody certainly discovered this chart and common carriages and horses ranks totally different, in the chart is a high-spirited horse is made an effort by the groom to pull the reins, the author using the technique of extremely succinct, portrayed the groom to concentrate on completely to control high-spirited horse's manner and the high-spirited horse unruly grand appearance, this kind of strength and the speed unified the imposing manner was extremely has watches the value. Therefore the picture imposing manner is extraordinary, therefore imitates engraves in the courtyard. Perhaps this chart manifests Advocates Grave the person before death to have the affection to hunt for rides the famous horse's hobby. Everybody please gain ground looked that, this Buddha's statue is in the entire tomb chamber most has the research value. It passes the height 28 centimeters, wears passes the shoulder 天衣， the right hand does “executes dauntless India”， the performance is “peaceful all” meaning. This image of Buddha is the our country earliest Buddha engraves one of statues.
Buddhism spreads to China to the Han Dynasty, but the earliest image of Buddha unearthed in Leshan Grave Cliff center, had actually proven Buddhism in Leshan's dissemination certainly not compared to other place evenings, this is studies the Chinese early time Buddhism history, the Buddhism art and Buddhism spreads to Chinese the route and so on the question noticeable material. What right side engraves is First Shop, First Shop generally engraves center gate Liang, the doorframe, the lintel, its function is Evil spirit Falls exorcises, protects the master, the gate right hand has the woman which as soon as grasps the broom, this tells everybody, if must enter the gate certainly to have first sweeps the dust, clean, this has also displayed master's hospitable one side. Now has entered in the room, here all imitates the graveyard which the dead before death residence arranges. Then people to the death, to the remains understanding were: “The person dies says the ghost, the ghost, turns over to also, the essence belongs to the day, the human body belongs to the earth”， therefore everybody may see in here master's living room, the kitchen, the bathroom and so on, they pursue are one kind although die still the fresh life. According to family's size and the grave system form, the experts divide into the grave system the unitary system, the double type system. Is just like a two room hall, a three room hall which we now said and so on. The tomb terminus is putting the coffin. In the coffin generally buries pair of husbands and wives, symbolizes a small family, the dead on likely continues before death to coexist a courtyard, the different seniority in relationships or brothers respectively become a little family, born with have the possibility which the house allocation occupies are a family, because certain objective reasons, cannot extend, the expansion the grave hole. If must hold the entire family, then has the possibility to need very much to open the entire place mountain a giant grave group. Did not know everybody does have the discovery, the stature slightly high visitor friend comes in when always bends the waist, that is because the grave went against too lowers. But after comes in, worry-free many, that is because they in order to drain water in, intentionally makes Grave Cliff the ground is high Low Outside, but also knocks out the draining water trench in the ground. Invites everybody again with me two side exhibition hall visits when the grave to the grave outside the funeral object. These funeral objects all are the ceramic products, the only replica is this studies the commission. In Grave Cliff the development different time, these funeral objects types, the combination form have the development, has the change, on roughly divides into the early time, the intermediate stage, the later period. In the cabinet exhibits Tao Ji, Tao Zhu and so on also has the different meaning, for instance Tao Zhu, Tao Ya expresses Advocates Grave person's family financial situation. Tao Gou quite are many in the grave, because the Han Dynasty raises wind of the dog to be in vogue very much, lives when does for the pet, after dies puts in the grave uses to prevent the bandits and thieves. Inside this most had watches the value is in 1978 the unearthed ceramic building, from the building splendid, the heavy building double-eaved roof definitely was allowed to see Advocates Grave person's before death wealth. Good, asks everybody to visit in here freedom, visits is please centralized in the entrance!
The city of Leshan is less than one hour's ride from the Baoguosi Monastery at the foot of Mt. Emei.Leshan is the home of the Giant Buddha at the conflueence of the Min,Dadu and Qingyi rivers.It qualifies as the largest Buddha in a sitting posture in the world .You must board a riverboat for the best view of the Giant Buddha.The massive Buddha was carved out of a cliff face more than a thousand years ago, but now it is still well preserved in good shape, with his full and serene face.
The Buddha is the largest Buddha in China,towering to 71m,with his 14.7m head,and 24m shoulders.The Buddha's ears are 6.72m long, insteps 8.5m broad, and a picnic could be conducted on the nail of his big toe, which is 1.5m long.
This carving project was begun in 713.Each summer at that time the Min,Dadu and Qingyi rivers flowed down.As the ghree rivers met,turbu-lent waves strucd each other hard,boats capsized and boatmen vanished.There was a Buddhist monkby the name of Haitong in Lingyun Hill,who saw the situation and was determined to carve a giant Buddha out of the cliff face, hoping that the Buddha's presence would subdue the swift currents and protect the boatmen .Haitong started travelling along the Changjiang river and other areas in China to collect funds for the gigantic carving. Once an evil official attempted to obtain by force the money collected by Haitong.The monk refused him in strong terms.He said,“I'd rather gouge out my eyes than give a penny to you,”The official shouted in anger,“gouge your eye out now!”Haitong resolutely dug out one of his eyes.
The monk's behavior in protecting the funding so greatly encouraged sculptors and other construction workers that the carving work went on smoothly. Unfortunately Haitong died before the completion of his life's work .However, this work continued due to the support of the local people as well as Weigao and Zhangchou Jianqing,the local top military commanders. The word took up 90 years until 803 when it was completed.Since then the Buddha has watched over the river traffic for more than a thousand years to offset the large number of serious accidents in the river. Modern Chinese question whether safer boat gravel is due to his presence or to sime later-day dredging.
As you get close to the Buddha,we can find out some scattered holes im rows around the Buddha.They are remains of so Called the Giant Buddha Pavilion . It was a nine-storied building set up during the Tang Dynasty to shelter the Buddha.It was renamed as the Lingyun Pavilion with 13 stories during the Song Dynasty. Unfortunately it was destroyed by a war during the Ming Dynasty. Since then the Buddha remains outside in the open space.
The Giant Buddha has lasted over a thousand years, and still survives in good shape.Why? First of all, according to the studies on the ancient construction of the Buddha,the cliff face the Buddha occupies enjoys topographical advantages. It is on the southern side of the hill,where verdant trees grow so well as to protect rocks and slope from erosion.Secondly although the Buddha seats bordering on the confluence of the three rivers, the immense statue is carved into the cliff face inside the hill,which alleviate the severe damage by wind and water erosion.Finally there is a water-drainage system,hidden from view.The system starts with 1021 fastened hairs, which conect one another at the bace of the bead .The end of the hairs inter-links the shoulders,joining the simple-patterned robe pleats carved on the body.The hairs,shoulders and pleats naturally reveal a complete system that carries away the entire surface water on the body, where the water disappears underground.
It is worth making several passes at the Buddha.From the ferry pier on the island,you climba steep road and through Lingyun Temple to a vantage point for viewing the buddha.You can go to the top,opposite the head, and then descend a short zigzag stairway carved into the cliff to the feet for the top,oppoosite the head,and then descend a short zigzag stairway carved into the cliff to the feet for the different perspective viwepoints.A local boat passes by for a frontal view, which reveals two guardians in the cliff side, not visible from land,Wuyou Buddhist Monastery can be reached in 15 minutes by footpath from the Buddha,which is also from the Tang Dynasty with Ming and Qing renovations,Its layout is very similar to the other monasteries as we mentioned before.Walking along up Wuyou Hill,you can enjoy the quiet and beartiful scenery, The top of Wuyou Hill affords you a vision of an emerald-green tree forest, glazed golden tiles of the monastery roofs and the distant rivers.
It would be a mistake to thind of Leshan as ome big Buddha, but it is wouth making a trip to Leshan,which will provide you with a pleasant picture made by the ancient Chinese sites and the beautiful nature being combined into a whole.