and 19.5 meters respectively. 92 planks of wood measuring 2 to 4 meters in length were found at the bottom of the tomb, indicating that the four walls of the tomb were great in scale, with the largest wall measuring 6 meters. All of the large planks were greatly detailed, painted and engraved with decorative patterns, as well as inlaid with animal teeth. Humans sacrificed or buried alive number 225. Burial articles, like ritual bronzes, stone and jade ware, white pottery, and gold foil, were excavated, many of which were made in an elegant manner. Tomb 1001 was a burial from early in Yinxu's history, and is believed to be Five large tombs were discovered in the eastern zone of the Royal Cemetery. Over 2000 smaller burials and sacrificial pits are scattered all around the large tombs. In the vicinity of the western zone's eight tombs, only more than 100 smaller tombs and sacrificial pits have been discovered. Take a quick look at the eight large tombs in the western zone. Excluding the unfinished tomb in the middle, do you notice any similarities? These tombs all have four tomb ramps. Archaeologists believe that four tomb ramps designated the tombs of the Shang kings, confirming that this place is indeed the burial ground of the late Shang royal family. Pre-Qin dynasty royal tombs preserved this practice. For example, the recently discovered Chu tomb in Hubei province, Jiuliandun, has the four-ramped layout. Yet among the five large tombs of the eastern zone, only one has four tomb ramps. Three of them have 2 ramps, and 1 large tomb has only a single tomb ramp. The standards of the eastern zone are inferior to the western zone.
Do Yinxu Royal Cemetery large tombs have other shared characteristics? First, the tomb pits are vast and their design magnificent. An example of this is large tomb number 1217, the tomb located below the viewing platform. This tomb has four ramps, and the tomb pit is shaped like a cross. From north to south it measures 18.4 meters long, and from east to west it is 18.1 meters wide. From the tomb mouth at the surface to the bottom of the pit is 15.4 meters, and the four tomb ramps in east, west, south and north measure 28.9 meters, 25.00 meters, 60.40 meters, and 41.55 meters respectively. The total area is 1,803 square meters, making it the largest tomb in the Royal Cemetery with the longest tomb ramps as well. A second similarity is that the large tombs of the Royal Cemetery all have abundant burial articles of various kinds. For example, the tomb I introduced earlier, large tomb number 1004, contained the largest number of excavated articles in a single tomb. Of special mention are two square ding-cauldrons, one decorated with ox motifs and the other decorated with deer motifs. They are wonderful examples of Shang bronze ware, their molding is thick and heavy, but their designs are exquisite. A third characteristic is the widespread evidence of live-human burial, ranging in numbers of 1 to over 100 victims per tomb. An example of this is large tomb number 1001. Located in the western zone of the Royal Cemetery, tomb 1001 has four tomb ramps. The tomb pit is shaped like a cross, and it measures 18.9 meters from north to south, 21.3 meters from east to west, and is 10.5 meters deep. The four tomb ramps are sloped: the eastern ramp is 14.3 meters long, the western ramp measures 11 meters, the southern ramp is 30.7 meters, and the northern ramp comes to 19.5 meters in length. The tomb floor contained 92 planks of cedar measuring 2 to 4 meters in length, used to build the tomb floor and walls. The longest piece of wood measured 6 meters. These planks were all painted vermilion, engraved with decorative patterns and inlaid wth animal teeth paying extravagant attention to detail. The number of humans buried alive or sacrificed came to 225, one of the highest number in the Royal Cemetery. A large number of the burial articles, like ritual bronzes, stone and jade ware, white pottery and gold foil, were of impeccable manufacture. Tomb 1001 is a burial from a relatively early period at the Royal Cemetery, and there are some scholar who believe it is the tomb of Shang king Wu Ding.
The eight large tombs of the western zone, as some can probably figure out, have tomb ramps that overlap. When scholars excavated the large tombs, they discovered this overlapping phenomenon as saw it as more evidence for the orderly arrangement of the tombs. The tombs had already been looted, and the number of surviving burial articles were few, making periodization difficult. Based on the order of tomb construction determined from the overlapping of the tomb ramps, scholars can unequivocally determine their chronological order. For example, take large tomb numbers 1217 and 1500 located below the view platform. During excavation, tomb 1217 overlapped tomb 1500's ramps, so from this we can conclude that tomb 1217 was constructed later than tomb 1500. 观景台我先介绍到这里，如果大家有兴趣，一会讲解结束后，可以自由参观。 Here on the platform which I introduced earlier, if you have questions or what to know more, please feel free to ask me. After I have finished the tour, you can explore the site on your own.
According to the recollections of villagers, the Royal Cemetery site was also called the cypress graveyard of the Wus, a family with a tradition of military service, because it used to be a forest of cypress trees. In the 1920s, there were still over 100 trees, some so thick it took three people to encircle the entire trunk. After the invading Japanese captured Anyang, the cypress forest was cut down completely, and was progressively converted into farmland.
Since the large tombs were backfilled after excavation, in order to help visitors understand the location of tombs in the Royal Cemetery site, we have planted cypress trees to act as plant markers. Why did we use cypress trees and not another variety? As the Analects of Confucius say, the Xia dynasty planted pine trees near its ancestral temple, and the Shang planted cypress trees. In order to reflect the landscape of the Shang period, we have therefore used cypress trees. Throughout the entire site we have planted cypress trees and Chinese scholar trees, plants which are all appropriate for a cemetery.
In the center of the 8 large tombs in the western zone of the Royal Cemetery, there is one incomplete tomb, which has been numbered 1567 by archaeologists. Why do we say it is incomplete? Because for this large tomb, only the tomb pit was dug, and no evidence of human sacrifice or burial was found. Some scholars have deduced that this tomb should belong to Shang king Di Xin, also know as King Zhou of Yin. In 1046 BCE, when King Wu of the Zhou dynasty, which is not the same Zhou as the Shang king, attacked King Zhou of Yin, construction of the tomb was unfinished, so King Zhou immolated himself. Because of this, he was not buried after he died. Of course, this is only conjecture. It could turn out to be King Zhou of Yin's tomb, or it could not be--it is still an unsolved mystery. Not only the identity of this tomb's intended occupant, but the occupants of other large tombs are also unknown and depend on further investigation and exploration. Because these tombs were frequently robbed in the past and we only have what artifacts were left for evidence, it is very difficult to determine the true occupants of the tombs. It is an unfortunate situation, but it is also part of the captivating mystery of the Royal Cemetery site.
As archaeological excavation has indicated, the large tombs in the Yinxu royal cemetery were built below present-day surface levels, some as low as 10 meters. The tomb pits are shaped like crosses, or squares with one or two ramps leading upward. This large tomb is known as tomb number 1500. The shape of the tomb pit is nearly a square, and it has four tomb ramps. The dimensions of the tomb narrow from mouth to the base, starting at 18.45 meters from north to south and shrinking to 10.38 meters. Except for the southern tomb ramp which is sloped, the other three all contain steps. Branching off of the northern tomb ramp are two smaller paths east and west, which also contain steps. The southern tomb ramp is 48.55 meters long and the eastern ramp is 20.05 meters with a flight of 23 steps. The western ramp is 22.65 meters long, and has 28 steps. The northern ramp is 22.60 meters long and has 31 steps. It's eastern branch is 3 meters long with 11 steps, and the western branch is 3.38 steps long and contains 10 steps. This tomb was robbed several times in the past, but still several relics remained protected. Excavated items include stone vessels, stone figurines of dragons, oxen, and tigers, as well as a jade ge-dagger-axe, jade ornaments, bone arrowheads, bronze spearheads, gold leaf, white pottery and wooden insignias. 114 human sacrifices were uncovered as well.
十一、M1500至 M1004路上 这边我们可以看到一些石雕。
On this side we can see some stone carvings. These are based on carvings excavated from the large tombs, copies based on the original appearance of the carvings. Take for example this carving of a kneeling legendary animal excavated from large tomb number 1001. （By the way, this tomb was excavated under the direction of famous Chinese archaeologist Yin Da.） After the stone creature was excavated, we saw that its appearance was extremely peculiar. Its appearance is like a tiger, but it is kneeling and is different from real tigers in other ways. During the Shang period some people described this as having the head of a tiger and the body of a man. Models like this stone creature cause us to examine Shang aesthetics. In addition to the stone creature, there is also a stone ox, it's four limbs curved in a squatting position. The stone tiger and stone dragon are lying prostrate on their bellies. These kinds of stone carvings not only reflect Shang period aesthetic sensibilities, but also reflect the superb level of Shang art.
This large tomb on our side is known as large tomb number 1004. The tomb pit resembles a rectangle, and has four tomb ramps. Again, the tomb's mouth is larger than its base, and is 12.20 meters deep. The tomb mouth is 17.90 meters （north-south） by 15.90 meters （east-west）。 The east, west, south, and north tomb ramps are all sloped, measuring 15.00 meters, 13.80 meters, 31.40 meters and 14.10 meters respectively. Inside the tomb pit is the inner wooden chamber, its long planks of wood assembled in a cross shape. The walls of the chamber were painted, engraved with decorative patterns and inlaid. This tomb was looted in the past, but in the southern portion of the tomb pit several important burial articles were preserved. The burial articles were arranged in four layers. The first layer was chariot ornaments and leather armor and shields. The second layer contained 360 bronze spearheads. In the third layer were placed more than 100 bronze helmets and 370 bronze ge-dagger-axes. The topmost layer contained the famous ox and deer square ding-cauldrons I mentioned earlier, as well as stone chimes and jade clubs. Inside the tomb, the remains of 13 human sacrifices were found. Tomb number 1004 is placed chronologically between the early and middle phases at Yinxu.
发掘这座大墓时，在墓的上， , 方发现了一座汉代墓，汉代墓的下方有一个盗洞，一直挖到M1004大墓的墓室。根据这一点，他们推测早在汉代以前，甚至春秋、西周时期这些大墓已经被盗。该墓在第一次清理发掘时，没发现什么珍贵文物，而且也是当时发掘的四座大墓（M1001、M1002、M1003）中略小的一座。在第二次对它清理发掘时，它却大放光彩。在南墓道口未被盗坑波及的一块夯土中，发现了两个大鼎，为牛方鼎和鹿方鼎。在墓的旁边，我们可以看到两个大鼎的复制品。牛鼎四面为牛头，鹿鼎四面为鹿头，两件大鼎纹饰精美，器型厚重。梁思永看到两件大鼎后，感慨的说：“牛、鹿大鼎不但是中国考古史上第一大发现，也是中国时代最早的青铜大鼎第一次出土。”现在这两件大鼎保存在我国的宝岛--台湾。除了这两个大鼎以外，还发现了车饰、皮甲、盾牌以及大量的铜矛头、铜盔、铜戈等重要文物。因此，这座大墓是殷墟王陵考古史中最重要的发现之一，同时为我们研究殷商文化起到重要作用。
When this tomb was excavated, a tomb from the Han dynasty was discovered above it. Beneath the Han tomb a looter's tunnel had been dug straight into the pit of tomb 1004. Based on this evidence, archaeologists have conjectured that early during the Han period, even before the Spring and Autumn period and the Western Zhou dynasty, these tombs were already being plundered. The first time this tomb was scientifically excavated, no valuable cultural relics were discovered, and compared to other tombs excavated at the time, like tombs 1001, 1002, and 1003, this tomb was slightly smaller. When this tomb was dug up a second time by archaeologists, they made an important discovery: at the opening of the southern tomb ramp, they found a section of rammed earth unplundered. There they found two great ding-cauldrons, one decorated with ox motifs and the other decorated with deer motifs. On the side of the tomb, we can see two copies of the great ding-cauldrons. The four sides of the ox ding-cauldron have ox heads, and the four sides of the deer ding-cauldron have deer heads. The decorations of these two pieces are exquisite and their casting is decorous. After seeing these two relics, archaeologist Liang Siyong exclaimed “The ox and deer ding cauldrons are not only the first great discovery of Chinese archaeology, but they are also the earliest bronze ding-cauldrons excavated in Chinese history.” Right now these two ding-cauldrons are kept in China's treasured island, Taiwan. In addition to these two pieces, chariot decorations, leather armor and shields as well as large numbers of bronze spearheads, helmets and ge-dagger-axes were important cultural relics discovered in this tomb. Consequently this tomb is one of the most important discoveries in the history of Shang archaeology, and at the same time has also sparked new trends in the study of Shang culture.
Among the large tombs in the Royal Cemetery site, the leading example is tomb number 1001. Tomb 1001 is located on the eastern side of the western zone. It has four tomb ramps, and the tomb pit is shaped like a cross. From north to south it measures 18.9 meters long, and from east to west it is 21.3 meters wide. From the tomb opening to the bottom, it is 10.5 meters. The four tomb ramps are sloped, with the eastern, western, southern, and northern ramps measuring 14.3 meters, 11 meters, 30.7 meters, Shang king Wu Ding's tomb.
Discovery and study of the Shang royal clan's graveyard has allowed us to find out the scope and burial practices of the Royal Cemetery. It has also led us to find out about the makeup and numbers of burial articles, as well as the systems of human live burial and sacrifice. These all verify that this place is indeed China's earliest known intact royal cemetery site. Moreover, it proves that the Shang dynasty had already developed into a slave society. Most importantly it shows that the Shang dynasty had already acquired truly powerful national strength. Otherwise how could it have constructed such immense tombs or created such exquisite artifacts? Three thousand years ago, the Shang dynasty was flourishing. Our town of Anyang is by no means inferior. Under the leadership of the Party and municipal governments, Anyang's economy ranks among the top in the entire province. Anyang's diverse economic development has driven the expansion of the efforts to safeguard local cultural relics, and step by step we strive towards the goal of becoming the central metropolis of northern Henan. History gives us a long record of success. Looking to tomorrow and the future, we see that the ancient capital, Anyang, will become even better.
王陵遗址的讲解到此结束，谢谢！ This concludes the tour of the Royal Cemetery site. Thank you!
translated by Billy French