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“殷墟王陵”中英双语导游词(下)

[日期:04-17] 来源:网络  作者:未知 [字体: ]

“殷墟王陵”中英双语导游词(下)


  
  and 19.5 meters respectively. 92 planks of wood measuring 2 to 4 meters in length were found at the bottom of the tomb, indicating that the four walls of the tomb were great in scale, with the largest wall measuring 6 meters. All of the large planks were greatly detailed, painted and engraved with decorative patterns, as well as inlaid with animal teeth. Humans sacrificed or buried alive number 225. Burial articles, like ritual bronzes, stone and jade ware, white pottery, and gold foil, were excavated, many of which were made in an elegant manner. Tomb 1001 was a burial from early in Yinxu's history, and is believed to be Five large tombs were discovered in the eastern zone of the Royal Cemetery. Over 2000 smaller burials and sacrificial pits are scattered all around the large tombs. In the vicinity of the western zone's eight tombs, only more than 100 smaller tombs and sacrificial pits have been discovered. Take a quick look at the eight large tombs in the western zone. Excluding the unfinished tomb in the middle, do you notice any similarities? These tombs all have four tomb ramps. Archaeologists believe that four tomb ramps designated the tombs of the Shang kings, confirming that this place is indeed the burial ground of the late Shang royal family. Pre-Qin dynasty royal tombs preserved this practice. For example, the recently discovered Chu tomb in Hubei province, Jiuliandun, has the four-ramped layout. Yet among the five large tombs of the eastern zone, only one has four tomb ramps. Three of them have 2 ramps, and 1 large tomb has only a single tomb ramp. The standards of the eastern zone are inferior to the western zone.
  
  殷墟王陵大墓还有什么特点呢?首先,这些大墓墓室宏大,形制壮阔,具有代表性的是M1217大墓。也就是观景台下面的这座大墓。该墓有4条墓道,墓室平面呈“亚”字形,墓室南北长18.4米,东西宽18.1米,墓口到底深15.4米,东、西、南、北四条墓道分别长28.90米、25.00米、60.40米、41.55米。总面积达1,803平方米,是王陵遗址规模最大、墓道最长的大墓。第二,王陵大墓墓内随葬品丰富,种类繁多。像刚才我介绍给大家的M1004大墓,这是王陵遗址大墓出土器物最多的一座。特别是出土了牛方鼎、鹿方鼎,器型厚重,文饰精美,是殷墟出土青铜器的代表之一。第三,就是墓内殉人普遍,数量少则1人,多则达上百人。具有代表性的是M1001大墓。它在王陵遗址西区东部,大墓内M1001位于王陵遗址西区东部,有4条墓道。墓室平面呈“亞”字形,南北长18.9米,东西宽21.3米,墓口至墓底深10.5米。4条墓道呈坡状,其东、西、南、北分别长14.3米、11米 、30.7米、19.5米。墓底由92块长2-4米的巨型柏木板铺底、四壁由巨型木板筑成,最大者长达6米。这些巨型木板皆涂朱,雕刻花纹,镶嵌兽牙,奢华考究。墓内外的殉人及人牲多达225人,是殷墟王陵大墓重殉人最多的一个。并出土了青铜礼器、玉石器、白陶及金叶等大量制作极为精美的随葬品。M1001是殷墟王陵遗址中时代较早的墓葬,有学者认为是商王武丁的陵墓。
  
  Do Yinxu Royal Cemetery large tombs have other shared characteristics? First, the tomb pits are vast and their design magnificent. An example of this is large tomb number 1217, the tomb located below the viewing platform. This tomb has four ramps, and the tomb pit is shaped like a cross. From north to south it measures 18.4 meters long, and from east to west it is 18.1 meters wide. From the tomb mouth at the surface to the bottom of the pit is 15.4 meters, and the four tomb ramps in east, west, south and north measure 28.9 meters, 25.00 meters, 60.40 meters, and 41.55 meters respectively. The total area is 1,803 square meters, making it the largest tomb in the Royal Cemetery with the longest tomb ramps as well. A second similarity is that the large tombs of the Royal Cemetery all have abundant burial articles of various kinds. For example, the tomb I introduced earlier, large tomb number 1004, contained the largest number of excavated articles in a single tomb. Of special mention are two square ding-cauldrons, one decorated with ox motifs and the other decorated with deer motifs. They are wonderful examples of Shang bronze ware, their molding is thick and heavy, but their designs are exquisite. A third characteristic is the widespread evidence of live-human burial, ranging in numbers of 1 to over 100 victims per tomb. An example of this is large tomb number 1001. Located in the western zone of the Royal Cemetery, tomb 1001 has four tomb ramps. The tomb pit is shaped like a cross, and it measures 18.9 meters from north to south, 21.3 meters from east to west, and is 10.5 meters deep. The four tomb ramps are sloped: the eastern ramp is 14.3 meters long, the western ramp measures 11 meters, the southern ramp is 30.7 meters, and the northern ramp comes to 19.5 meters in length. The tomb floor contained 92 planks of cedar measuring 2 to 4 meters in length, used to build the tomb floor and walls. The longest piece of wood measured 6 meters. These planks were all painted vermilion, engraved with decorative patterns and inlaid wth animal teeth paying extravagant attention to detail. The number of humans buried alive or sacrificed came to 225, one of the highest number in the Royal Cemetery. A large number of the burial articles, like ritual bronzes, stone and jade ware, white pottery and gold foil, were of impeccable manufacture. Tomb 1001 is a burial from a relatively early period at the Royal Cemetery, and there are some scholar who believe it is the tomb of Shang king Wu Ding.
  
  王陵西区的8座大墓,有人可能会发现,大墓的墓道是互通的。学者们发掘大墓时,发现有些墓道有叠压现象,这也按照一定的布局安排。墓已经全部被盗,残存随葬品极少,给分期断代研究带来了困难,根据墓道叠压关系,学者们可以明确判断出它们之间的建造顺序。比如,我们看到观景台下面的M1217与M1500,发掘时M1217叠压在M1500南墓道上,由此可知,M1217晚于M1500。
  
  The eight large tombs of the western zone, as some can probably figure out, have tomb ramps that overlap. When scholars excavated the large tombs, they discovered this overlapping phenomenon as saw it as more evidence for the orderly arrangement of the tombs. The tombs had already been looted, and the number of surviving burial articles were few, making periodization difficult. Based on the order of tomb construction determined from the overlapping of the tomb ramps, scholars can unequivocally determine their chronological order. For example, take large tomb numbers 1217 and 1500 located below the view platform. During excavation, tomb 1217 overlapped tomb 1500's ramps, so from this we can conclude that tomb 1217 was constructed later than tomb 1500.  观景台我先介绍到这里,如果大家有兴趣,一会讲解结束后,可以自由参观。  Here on the platform which I introduced earlier, if you have questions or what to know more, please feel free to ask me. After I have finished the tour, you can explore the site on your own.
  
  九、观景台至M1500大墓 根据村民们回忆,以前王陵遗址也叫武官吴家柏树坟,是一片古柏树林,到了20世纪30年代还有100多棵,最粗的要三个人才能合抱。日本侵略者占领安阳后,这片坟地上的柏树都被砍光了,逐步变成了农田。
  
  According to the recollections of villagers, the Royal Cemetery site was also called the cypress graveyard of the Wus, a family with a tradition of military service, because it used to be a forest of cypress trees. In the 1920s, there were still over 100 trees, some so thick it took three people to encircle the entire trunk. After the invading Japanese captured Anyang, the cypress forest was cut down completely, and was progressively converted into farmland.
  
  由于大墓在发掘后就进行了回填,为了让大家了解大墓的分布形式,我们在大墓上用柏树做了地表植被标识。为什么用柏树而不用其他树种呢?根据论语记载,夏代祖庙附近种植松树,商代种植柏树。为体现出当年的风貌,所以我们采用了柏树。在整个景区,还种植了松树、槐树等一些植被。这些植被一般都是种植在墓区的。
  
  Since the large tombs were backfilled after excavation, in order to help visitors understand the location of tombs in the Royal Cemetery site, we have planted cypress trees to act as plant markers. Why did we use cypress trees and not another variety? As the Analects of Confucius say, the Xia dynasty planted pine trees near its ancestral temple, and the Shang planted cypress trees. In order to reflect the landscape of the Shang period, we have therefore used cypress trees.  Throughout the entire site we have planted cypress trees and Chinese scholar trees, plants which are all appropriate for a cemetery.
  
  (M1567大墓)在王陵西区的8座大墓中,有1座未完工的大墓,它在考古发掘时的编号为M1567,居于这八座大墓的中部。为什么说未完工呢?因为这座大墓只挖开了墓室,墓内未发现殉葬用人牲。有学者推测,此墓应属于商王帝辛(即殷纣王)。公元前1046年,周武王伐纣,墓未修建完成,帝辛自焚而亡。因此,他死后未埋入此墓。当然,这也只是一个推测,究竟是不是殷纣王之墓,仍然是一个未解之谜。不仅这座大墓主人,其他大墓的主人也是解不开的谜团,有待进一步的考证与探索。因为它们历史上多次被盗掘,只从劫后遗物上,很难判断大墓真正的主人,是令人遗憾的事情,也是王陵遗址的魅力所在。
  
  In the center of the 8 large tombs in the western zone of the Royal Cemetery, there is one incomplete tomb, which has been numbered 1567 by archaeologists. Why do we say it is incomplete? Because for this large tomb, only the tomb pit was dug, and no evidence of human sacrifice or burial was found. Some scholars have deduced that this tomb should belong to Shang king Di Xin, also know as King Zhou of Yin. In 1046 BCE, when King Wu of the Zhou dynasty, which is not the same Zhou as the Shang king, attacked King Zhou of Yin, construction of the tomb was unfinished, so King Zhou immolated himself.  Because of this, he was not buried after he died. Of course, this is only conjecture. It could turn out to be King Zhou of Yin's tomb, or it could not be--it is still an unsolved mystery. Not only the identity of this tomb's intended occupant, but the occupants of other large tombs are also unknown and depend on further investigation and exploration. Because these tombs were frequently robbed in the past and we only have what artifacts were left for evidence, it is very difficult to determine the true occupants of the tombs. It is an unfortunate situation, but it is also part of the captivating mystery of the Royal Cemetery site.
  
  十、M1500大墓 (M1500大墓)
  
  根据考古发掘表明,殷墟王陵大墓埋在地表以下,有的深达10余米。墓室平面多呈现“亚”字形、“中”字形、“甲”字形等。这座大墓为M1500,墓室近方形,四条墓道。口小底大,南北口长18.45米,底长10.38米。四条墓道除南墓道为坡形外,其余三条皆有台阶,北墓道中段还有两个东西向的支道,也有台阶。南墓道长48.55米;东墓道长20.05米,23级台阶;西墓道长22.65米,28级台阶;北墓道长22.60米,31级台阶;北墓道的东支道长3米,11级台阶;西支道长3.38米,10级台阶。此墓曾多次被盗,但仍保留有许多遗物,出土有石俎、石夔龙、石牛、石虎和玉戈、玉饰、骨镞、铜矛头、铜镞、金叶、白陶、仪仗类木器等。殉人达114个。
  
  As archaeological excavation has indicated, the large tombs in the Yinxu royal cemetery were built below present-day surface levels, some as low as 10 meters. The tomb pits are shaped like crosses, or squares with one or two ramps leading upward. This large tomb is known as tomb number 1500. The shape of the tomb pit is nearly a square, and it has four tomb ramps. The dimensions of the tomb narrow from mouth to the base, starting at 18.45 meters from north to south and shrinking to 10.38 meters. Except for the southern tomb ramp which is sloped, the other three all contain steps. Branching off of the northern tomb ramp are two smaller paths east and west, which also contain steps. The southern tomb ramp is 48.55 meters long and the eastern ramp is 20.05 meters with a flight of 23 steps. The western ramp is 22.65 meters long, and has 28 steps. The northern ramp is 22.60 meters long and has 31 steps. It's eastern branch is 3 meters long with 11 steps, and the western branch is 3.38 steps long and contains 10 steps. This tomb was robbed several times in the past, but still several relics remained protected. Excavated items include stone vessels, stone figurines of dragons, oxen, and tigers, as well as a jade ge-dagger-axe, jade ornaments, bone arrowheads, bronze spearheads, gold leaf, white pottery and wooden insignias. 114 human sacrifices were uncovered as well.
  
  十一、M1500至 M1004路上 这边我们可以看到一些石雕。
  
  它们是根据大墓中出土的石雕,按照原样仿制的。像这个石怪兽,是在M1001大墓中出土的,作屈膝跪坐状。(该墓是由我国著名考古学家尹达主持发掘的)石怪兽出土后,人们看到它的样子非常特别,形状如虎,但屈膝跪坐,与虎又有差别,当时有人把它称为虎首人身像。石怪兽的这种造型,也让我们看到了商代的礼仪。除了石怪兽,这里还有石牛,它四肢弯曲呈现蹲踞状。石虎、石龙均呈伏卧壮。这些石雕不仅反映出当时人们的审美观念,而且体现出商代高超的工艺制作水平。
  
  On this side we can see some stone carvings. These are based on carvings excavated from the large tombs, copies based on the original appearance of the carvings. Take for example this carving of a kneeling legendary animal excavated from large tomb number 1001. (By the way, this tomb was excavated under the direction of famous Chinese archaeologist Yin Da.)  After the stone creature was excavated, we saw that its appearance was extremely peculiar. Its appearance is like a tiger, but it is kneeling and is different from real tigers in other ways. During the Shang period some people described this as having the head of a tiger and the body of a man. Models like this stone creature cause us to examine Shang aesthetics. In addition to the stone creature, there is also a stone ox, it's four limbs curved in a squatting position. The stone tiger and stone dragon are lying prostrate on their bellies. These kinds of stone carvings not only reflect Shang period aesthetic sensibilities, but also reflect the superb level of Shang art.
  
  十二、M1004大墓 (M1004大墓)我们旁边的这座大墓为M1004。
  
  墓室呈长方形,四条墓道。墓室口大底小,口至底深12.20米。墓口南北长17.90米,东西宽15.90米。四条墓道均呈坡形,东、西、南、北墓道分别长15.00米、13.80米、31.40米、14.10米。墓室内由长木条铺叠成“亞”字形木椁,椁室四壁涂漆,雕刻花纹,上有镶嵌。此墓曾多次被盗掘,但在墓室南部还保留了许多重要的随葬品。随葬品分四层安置,最底层是车饰、皮甲及盾等物,第二层是铜矛头360个,第三层放置铜盔100多个、铜戈370把,最上层为著名的牛方鼎、鹿方鼎和石磬、碧玉棒等。墓内殉人13个。M1004的时代处于殷墟早期与中期之间。
  
  This large tomb on our side is known as large tomb number 1004. The tomb pit resembles a rectangle, and has four tomb ramps. Again, the tomb's mouth is larger than its base, and is 12.20 meters deep. The tomb mouth is 17.90 meters (north-south) by 15.90 meters (east-west)。 The east, west, south, and north tomb ramps are all sloped, measuring 15.00 meters, 13.80 meters, 31.40 meters and 14.10 meters respectively. Inside the tomb pit is the inner wooden chamber, its long planks of wood assembled in a cross shape. The walls of the chamber were painted, engraved with decorative patterns and inlaid. This tomb was looted in the past, but in the southern portion of the tomb pit several important burial articles were preserved. The burial articles were arranged in four layers. The first layer was chariot ornaments and leather armor and shields. The second layer contained 360 bronze spearheads. In the third layer were placed more than 100 bronze helmets and 370 bronze ge-dagger-axes. The topmost layer contained the famous ox and deer square ding-cauldrons I mentioned earlier, as well as stone chimes and jade clubs. Inside the tomb, the remains of 13 human sacrifices were found. Tomb number 1004 is placed chronologically between the early and middle phases at Yinxu.
  
  发掘这座大墓时,在墓的上, , 方发现了一座汉代墓,汉代墓的下方有一个盗洞,一直挖到M1004大墓的墓室。根据这一点,他们推测早在汉代以前,甚至春秋、西周时期这些大墓已经被盗。该墓在第一次清理发掘时,没发现什么珍贵文物,而且也是当时发掘的四座大墓(M1001、M1002、M1003)中略小的一座。在第二次对它清理发掘时,它却大放光彩。在南墓道口未被盗坑波及的一块夯土中,发现了两个大鼎,为牛方鼎和鹿方鼎。在墓的旁边,我们可以看到两个大鼎的复制品。牛鼎四面为牛头,鹿鼎四面为鹿头,两件大鼎纹饰精美,器型厚重。梁思永看到两件大鼎后,感慨的说:“牛、鹿大鼎不但是中国考古史上第一大发现,也是中国时代最早的青铜大鼎第一次出土。”现在这两件大鼎保存在我国的宝岛--台湾。除了这两个大鼎以外,还发现了车饰、皮甲、盾牌以及大量的铜矛头、铜盔、铜戈等重要文物。因此,这座大墓是殷墟王陵考古史中最重要的发现之一,同时为我们研究殷商文化起到重要作用。
  
  When this tomb was excavated, a tomb from the Han dynasty was discovered above it. Beneath the Han tomb a looter's tunnel had been dug straight into the pit of tomb 1004. Based on this evidence, archaeologists have conjectured that early during the Han period, even before the Spring and Autumn period and the Western Zhou dynasty, these tombs were already being plundered. The first time this tomb was scientifically excavated, no valuable cultural relics were discovered, and compared to other tombs excavated at the time, like tombs 1001, 1002, and 1003, this tomb was slightly smaller. When this tomb was dug up a second time by archaeologists, they made an important discovery: at the opening of the southern tomb ramp, they found a section of rammed earth unplundered. There they found two great ding-cauldrons, one decorated with ox motifs and the other decorated with deer motifs. On the side of the tomb, we can see two copies of the great ding-cauldrons. The four sides of the ox ding-cauldron have ox heads, and the four sides of the deer ding-cauldron have deer heads. The decorations of these two pieces are exquisite and their casting is decorous. After seeing these two relics, archaeologist Liang Siyong exclaimed “The ox and deer ding cauldrons are not only the first great discovery of Chinese archaeology, but they are also the earliest bronze ding-cauldrons excavated in Chinese history.” Right now these two ding-cauldrons are kept in China's treasured island, Taiwan. In addition to these two pieces, chariot decorations, leather armor and shields as well as large numbers of bronze spearheads, helmets and ge-dagger-axes were important cultural relics discovered in this tomb. Consequently this tomb is one of the most important discoveries in the history of Shang archaeology, and at the same time has also sparked new trends in the study of Shang culture.
  
  十三、M1001大墓 在王陵遗址大墓中,最具代表性的是M1001。
  
  M1001位于王陵遗址西区东部,有4条墓道。墓室平面呈“亞”字形,南北长18.9米,东西宽21.3米,墓口至墓底深10.5米。4条墓道呈坡状,其东、西、南、北分别长14.3米、11米 、30.7米、19.5米。墓底由92块长2-4米的巨型柏木板铺底、四壁由巨型木板筑成,最大者长达6米。这些巨型木板皆涂朱,雕刻花纹,镶嵌兽牙,奢华考究。墓内外的殉人及人牲多达225人,并出土了青铜礼器、玉石器、白陶及金叶等大量制作极为精美的随葬品。M1001是殷墟王陵遗址中时代较早的墓葬,被认为是商王武丁的陵墓。
  
  Among the large tombs in the Royal Cemetery site, the leading example is tomb number 1001. Tomb 1001 is located on the eastern side of the western zone. It has four tomb ramps, and the tomb pit is shaped like a cross. From north to south it measures 18.9 meters long, and from east to west it is 21.3 meters wide. From the tomb opening to the bottom, it is 10.5 meters. The four tomb ramps are sloped, with the eastern, western, southern, and northern ramps measuring 14.3 meters, 11 meters, 30.7 meters, Shang king Wu Ding's tomb.
  
  (结束语)商代王家陵园的发现与研究,让我们了解到当年王陵大墓的规模和葬俗,随葬品的数量与组合,人牲和人殉制度等一系列内容,证实这里是目前我国已知最早最完整的王陵遗址。并且证明商代已经进入奴隶社会,最重要的是商代已经拥有十分强大的国力,否则不会有这么庞大的陵墓群,铸造这么精美的器物。3000多年前的商代是如此繁华,现在我们的家乡安阳,也不逊色,在市委、市政府的领导下,我市经济已经名列全省前茅,特别是随着“一申四创”的开展,带动了我市文物保护事业的发展,逐步向豫北区域性中心城市的目标迈进。悠悠历史带给我们无尽的遐想,展望明天,古都安阳将会更加美好!
  
  Discovery and study of the Shang royal clan's graveyard has allowed us to find out the scope and burial practices of the Royal Cemetery. It has also led us to find out about the makeup and numbers of burial articles, as well as the systems of human live burial and sacrifice. These all verify that this place is indeed China's earliest known intact royal cemetery site. Moreover, it proves that the Shang dynasty had already developed into a slave society. Most importantly it shows that the Shang dynasty had already acquired truly powerful national strength. Otherwise how could it have constructed such immense tombs or created such exquisite artifacts? Three thousand years ago, the Shang dynasty was flourishing. Our town of Anyang is by no means inferior. Under the leadership of the Party and municipal governments, Anyang's economy ranks among the top in the entire province. Anyang's diverse economic development has driven the expansion of the efforts to safeguard local cultural relics, and step by step we strive towards the goal of becoming the central metropolis of northern Henan. History gives us a long record of success.  Looking to tomorrow and the future, we see that the ancient capital, Anyang, will become even better.
  
  王陵遗址的讲解到此结束,谢谢!  This concludes the tour of the Royal Cemetery site. Thank you!
  


  translated by Billy French
  
  傅比利翻译

 

 

 

 

 

 

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