背景:
阅读英语

“殷墟王陵”中英双语导游词(上)

[日期:04-17] 来源:网络  作者:未知 [字体: ]

 “殷墟王陵”中英双语导游词(上)





  
  (欢迎词 )各位领导,各位来宾,欢迎大家来到震惊中外的殷墟王陵遗址参观。
  
  Welcome to everyone that has come to see the world-astonishing Yinxu Royal Cemetery  .
  
  作为华夏文明最具有代表性的文物遗址,它被国际专家、学者赞誉为“第二个古埃及”,其价值可与世界七大奇迹相媲美。王陵遗址与洹水南岸的宫殿宗庙遗址一样,不仅是殷墟遗址的重要组成部分,而且也是世界文化遗产的核心范围。在这里发现了13座大墓(包括一座未完成大墓)、2000多座陪葬墓和祭祀坑,重达875公斤的国宝重器--司母戊鼎就出土于这里,被学术界公认为中国古代文化宝库中一颗璀璨夺目的明珠。正是因其重要价值,它与宫殿宗庙遗址得到了联合国专家的高度评价,有望在2006年进入世界文化遗产名录。让我们在为之加油喝彩的同时,也来领略它的神秘风采吧。
  
  Regarded as the most representative site of ancient Chinese civilization, the Royal Cemetery site is praised by international experts and scholars as the world's “Second Egypt”。  It is on par with the Seven Wonders of the World.  The Royal cemetery site is similar to the palace-temple complex on the south side of the Huan river. Therefore it is not only an important component in the Yinxu site, but is also designated by the World Cultural Heritage as a “Core Zone”。 Thirteen large tombs (including one unfinished large tomb), and more than 2000 accompanying tombs and sacrificial pits were discovered here. Weighing over 875 kilograms, the Si Mu Wu square ding-cauldron, a national treasure, was excavated here as well. It is regarded by academics circles around the world as a dazzling pearl amongst the treasures of ancient Chinese culture. Precisely because of the site's important value, it obtained the high praise of United Nations experts and in 2006 both the palace-temple complex and the royal cemetery were entered into the list of World Cultural Heritage sites. We are proud of this achievement, but we also still marvel at the mysterious presence of the site.
  
  一、正门外: (开场白)
  
  为更好地保护商代王陵遗址,我们在原址上修建了王陵遗址保护区。首先,映入大家眼帘的是一座仿殷建筑形式的大门,为“茅茨土阶,四阿重屋”的结构(茅草盖顶,夯土台阶,四面坡顶,两重房檐)。迈入这扇大门,一个尘封了3300年的殷商王朝将为我们揭开它神密的面纱,再现当年辉煌与强盛。现在请大家随我一同参观。
  
  In order to better protect the Shang Royal Cemetery site, we have built this protected area over the original site. First, take a look at this large gate built in the Shang style. Notice how thatched grass covers the top, how rammed earth was used to construct the steps, how the four sides are slanted, and how the roof features double-layered eaves. Passing through this gate, the dust-laden ruins of the 3300 year old Shang dynasty will be revealed, showing a glimpse of the ancient period's brilliance and prosperity to us in the modern day. Please follow me as we tour the site together.
  
  二、正门内 (概述王陵遗址的重要意义)
  
  二十世纪三十年代,中国第一批考古学者在这里发现了距今三千多年商王陵墓群,命名为商代“王陵遗址”。这是我国目前已知最早最完整的王陵墓葬群,它的发现,奠定了殷商文化研究的基础,确证了奴隶社会的存在,成为探索中华文明起源的重要基石。
  
  In the 1930s, China's first generation of archaeologists discovered the more than 3000 year old Shang royal tombs, naming it the Shang dynasty's Royal Cemetery site. This is the earliest complete royal cemetery grave group known in China. Its discovery established the foundations of Shang cultural research and provided conclusive proof of the existence of slave society. Study of this site has become an important cornerstone in the effort to explore the origins of Chinese civilization.
  
  首先,让我们来了解一下王陵遗址的平面布局。请看这边王陵遗迹分布图:王陵遗址位于安阳市西北郊洹水北岸的侯家庄与武官村北的高地上。与南面的殷墟宫殿宗庙遗址隔河相望,与东面的洹北商城遥相呼应,是殷墟遗址重要的组成部分。王陵遗址东西长450米,南北宽250米,占地11.3公顷(169.5亩)。大墓大约始建于商王武丁时期,而终于商王帝辛时期,前后营建达200余年。从1934年至今,在这里共发现了13座王陵大墓(包括一座未完成的大墓)、2000多座陪葬墓和祭祀坑。当年发掘时踩出的一条土路,把遗址分成相距百余米的东、西两区。东区有大墓五座,西区八座(包括一座未完成的大墓)。大墓规模宏伟,出土文物精美(举世闻名的司母戊方鼎就在这里出土);祭祀坑数量众多,排列有序。所以,学者们认为,这里不仅是殷商时期的商王陵地,而且也是王室祭祀先祖的一个公共祭祀场,是中国古代文明的辉煌篇章之一。因为当年发掘后这些大墓即被回填,为重现当年的盛大景象,我们在大墓原址分别采取了地下封存、地表植被砂石标识、复原展示和揭露展示等方法,再现了当年王陵墓葬群的宏大场面。下面,请先随我参观王陵遗址的东区。
  
  First, we must understand the geographical distribution of the site. Please have a look at this side of the Royal Cemetery map. The site is located in a suburb northeast of the city of Anyang, on the high bank of the Huan river north of Houjiazhuang and Wuguancun villages. The Royal Cemetery is an important component of the Yinxu site. Facing south towards the palace-temple site located across the river, it borders the Huanbei Shang city to the east. From east to west the Royal Cemetery site measures 450 meters, and from north to south it is 250 meters long, an area totaling 11.3 hectares (or 169.5 mu)。 Construction lasted more than 200 years, starting with the reign of Shang king Wu Ding and ending during the reign of the last Shang king, Di Xin. From 1934 to the present, 13 large tombs (including one incomplete tomb) and more than 2000 accompanying tombs and sacrificial pits have been discovered here. An excavated dirt footpath divides the site in two, and the western and eastern zones are separated by over 100 meters. The eastern zone has five large tombs, and the western zone has eight (including the uncompleted tomb)。 The scope of the tombs is grand, and the excavated cultural relics are exquisite--the world-famous Si Mu Wu square ding-cauldron was excavated here. The numerous sacrificial pits are arranged in an orderly fashion. Therefore scholars believe that this location was not only the cemetery of the Shang kings, but that it was also a public place for the royal court to offer sacrifices to the ancestors, illustrating a great chapter in ancient Chinese history. Because these tombs were backfilled after excavation, the previous splendor of the site has been restored. At the original locations of the large tombs we have undertaken measures to preserve the underground tombs by marking them aboveground with gravel that represents the shape of the original tomb. Through restoration and carefully chosen displays, the immense scope of the Royal graves is revealed. Next, please follow me to view the eastern section of the Royal Cemetery.
  
  三、平面图至车马坑展厅 (由王陵大墓的发现介绍王陵遗址概况)。
  
  从19世纪末甲骨文的发现到20世纪20年代的殷墟科学发掘,安阳在中国古史研究中的重要性已无可质疑。特别是小屯村一带宫殿宗庙遗址的确认,更是激发了大家寻找商代王陵的兴趣。大约在1933年,侯家庄附近私人盗掘出三件形状奇特、体积庞大的青铜器,消息不胫而走。正在主持发掘工作的考古学家梁思永先生听到了这个消息,并得知墓葬的位置大约靠近侯家庄、武官村一带,于是便在五位年轻的考古学家(石璋如、刘耀--即著名考古学家尹达先生、祁延霈、胡福林--即著名甲骨学大师胡厚宣先生、尹焕章)的协助下开始第十次发掘。在他们的不懈努力下,13座王陵大墓、2000多座祭祀坑逐步露出地表。根据墓内出土的器物,大墓的规模及人殉制度等情况,学者们认为这就是统治殷商王朝的最有权势的商王家族墓葬。一个尘封3000多年、深埋黄泉之下的殷商王朝终于显露出他的真实面貌。
  
  From the discovery of oracle bone inscriptions at the end of the 19th century to the scientific excavation of Yinxu in the 1920s, the significance of Anyang in the study of ancient Chinese history could not be questioned. In particular the identification of the palace-temple site at Xiaotun village further incited the interest of everyone in finding the Shang Royal Cemetery. In 1933, in the vicinity of Houjiazhuang village, private excavation yielded three bronze pieces peculiar in shape and immense in size. News of these pieces spread like wildfire. Precisely as archaeologist Liang Siyong took charge of the archaeological excavation he heard the rumors, and knowing that the position of the graves lay somewhere around Houjiazhuang and Wuguancun, he dispatched five young archaeologists (Shi Zhangru, Liu Yao--famous archaeologist now known as Yin Da, Qi Yanpei, Hu Fulin--renowned oracle-bone scholar now known as Hu Houxuan, and Yin Huanzhang) to start the 10th season of excavation. During their untiring efforts, 13 large tombs and over 2000 sacrificial pits were successively exposed from beneath the earth. Based on contents excavated from the tombs, the large scale of the tombs, and the systematic burial of human sacrifices, scholars believe this to been the graveyard of the powerful Shang royal clan which ruled during the Shang dynasty. Buried more than three thousand years ago in the bowels of the earth, the Shang dynasty had at least revealed its true face.
  
  东区主要分布了的五座大墓,分别是M1400、M1443、M1129、武官村大墓(WGKM1)和M260(相传司母戊方鼎就出土于此墓)。其中,M1400大墓为四条墓道,M1443、M1129、武官村大墓为两条墓道,M260为一条墓道。同时,其中东区发现了大量小型墓葬。这些墓葬除少数为陪葬墓外,大多属于祭祀坑,是商王祭祀先祖主要祭祀场所。
  
  The eastern zone consists primarily of five large tombs, known respectively as Tomb Number 1400, Tomb Number 1443, Tomb Number 1129, the Wuguancun large tomb, and Tomb Number 260, where, reportedly, the Si Mu Wu square ding-cauldron was excavated.  Among them, Tomb Number 1400 has four ramps leading down into the burial pit, Tombs 1443, 1129 and the Wuguancun tomb have two ramps, and Tomb 260 has one ramp.  Moreover, a large number of small scale burials were discovered in the eastern area. Excluding a few accompanying tombs, the majority of these burials are sacrificial pits, important sacrificial shrines for Shang royal ancestor worship.
  
  (武官村大墓)在东边我们可以看到有一座大墓,这就是武官村大墓。它是新中国成立后,由我国考古工作者进行的第一次考古发掘的重大成果。1950年,由郭宝钧先生主持发掘。墓室为长方形,两条墓道。口大底小。墓口南北长14米、东西宽12米,墓口至底深7.20米。墓室底有腰坑,内埋1人1戈。椁室南北长6.30米,东西宽5.20米、高2.50米。椁底由30根原木铺成。椁室每壁由9根原木叠成,呈井字型,上覆椁盖。北墓道长15米,呈坡状,南墓道长15.60米,直达墓底,殉人79人。并出土铜鼎、簋、觚、爵、戈及玉器等随葬品。最著名的有虎纹石磬,长84厘米,厚2.5厘米,正面雕刻卧虎纹,纹饰刚劲圆熟,生气盎然,是目前殷墟出土乐器中最大的一件,也是中国古代乐器宝库中难得的珍品。
  
  On the eastern side we can see there is a large tomb, which is the Wuguancun tomb. It was the first great achievement of Chinese archaeologists after the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949.  In 1950, Guo Baojun directed archaeological excavation at Anyang. The tomb pit is rectangular with two ramps leading up to the surface. At the surface, it is 14 meters long from north to south, and 12 meters from east to west. The bottom of the tomb, which is smaller in dimension than the tomb opening, lies 7.2 meters below the surface. At the bottom of the tomb is the waist pit, which contained a buried person and a ge-daggeraxe. An inner chamber, made of wood, was placed over the waist pit. It was 6.3 meters long, 5.2 meters wide, and 2.5 meters tall. 30 planks of wood were lain across the bottom of the inner chamber. Every wall of the chamber was composed of 9 planks of wood, apparently in the shape of a cross, and topped with a roof. The northern tomb ramp was sloped downward from the surface, 15 meters in length. The southern tomb ramp, 15.6 meters long, held 79 sacrificed humans, buried along the ramp down to the center of the tomb. Bronze ding-cauldrons, gui-bowls, gu-goblets, jue-wine vessels, ge-dagger-axes, and jadeware were found together as burial objects. A famous piece is an engraved tiger-shaped stone, 8.4 centimeters long and 2.5 centimeters tall. The engraved tiger stripes on the front side are bold and expertly carved, overflowing with vitality. At present it is one of the largest pieces of jadeware yet excavated, making it a rare gem in ancient China's storehouse of treasures.
  
  四、车马坑展览馆 (结合版面和实物进行介绍)
  
  车是古代中国陆上交通的主要工具。中国是世界上最早发明和使用车的国家之一,相传黄帝时已经发明了车,夏代还设“车正”之职,专门管理车旅交通和车辆的制造。目前的考古资料表明,殷墟出土的车是我国最早的车子实物。这是华夏民族的祖先在长期的生产实践中的一次重大发明与创造。以车子制造为代表的古代中国的科学技术,为人类科技的发展作出重要贡献。在甲骨文和青铜器铭文中“车”的形象出现较多,形象的描绘了当时车子的形态。车马器实物是1931年在殷墟考古中首次发现的。截止目前,发掘出土的殷代车马坑超过40座。
  
  The chariot was ancient China's principal means of land transportation. China was one of the earliest nations in the world to invent and use the chariot. According to tradition, it was invented by the Yellow Emperor. During the Xia dynasty, the office of the Chief of Chariots specialized in managing vehicle traffic and construction. As the archaeological evidence before you illustrates, the chariots excavated at Yinxu are China's earliest chariot specimens. This is one instance of the creation of an ancient invention by China's ancestors. If we look at the creation of the chariot as representative of ancient Chinese science and technology, we can see how ancient China's scientific development made significant contributions to humanity. Pictorial representations of chariots appear quite frequently in oracle bone and bronze inscriptions, images which depict the form of chariots during the period. Chariot horses and implements were first discovered during excavation at Yinxu in 1931. At present, excavated Shang period chariot pits number more than 40.
  
  殷代车子是木质结构,主要由舆、轴、轮、辕、衡、轭构成。由于深埋地下,年长岁久,出土时木质部分已全部腐朽,仅存遗痕和青铜饰件。考古工作者根据泥土中保留下来的车子轮廓,成功地对它们进行了剥剔和清理,经过复原,使距今三千多年前的殷代车子再现于人们眼前。
  
  The Shang chariot was constructed from wood, consisting of a carriage, axle, wheels, pole, and yoke.  Due to being buried underground for ages, the wooden components of the chariots had already completely decomposed. When the chariots were excavated, archaeologists found only wood traces and bronze decorations. Based on the trace outline left by the decomposed wood on the surrounding soil, archaeologists succeeded in preserving the shape of the chariot, thereby restoring a three thousand year old chariot for you to see before your own eyes.
  
  随着社会发展,车子在人们的社会生活中的作用越来越重要,使用范围也越来越广。人们对车子的重视,又促进了车子本身的进步。一方面,车子结构与系驾法向着轻便快捷发展,由单辕发展到双辕,由“轭靷系驾法”发展到“胸带系”驾,使车子更为合理也更为科学;另一方面,车子的作用也逐渐摆脱战场的束缚,成为人们日常生活和生产劳动的主要工具。中国文明的进步,在一定意义上与中国车子的发展是分不开的。
  
  Following the development of society, the use of the chariot in human social life grew more and more important, and the scope of its use broadened.  The Shang attached importance to the chariot and promoted its advancement. On the one hand, chariot structure and harness method became more portable and light. The single shaft connecting the yoke with the carriage was replaced by two and the leather harness strap developed into a shoulder harness, causing the chariot to more efficient and better designed. On the other hand, use of the chariot gradually exceeded the battlefield, becoming an important tool in everyday life and productive labor. The progress of Chinese civilization certainly cannot be separated from the development of the chariot.
  
  五、王陵墓葬展览馆 (结合版面和实物进行介绍)
  
  墓道为大墓所特有,由地表直通墓底,形成斜坡,有的墓道成台阶状。墓道内一般葬人牲或马。墓室一般为方形或长方形,面积由几十平方米到几百平方米不等。墓室四壁常有“二层台”,二层台上殉人或放置器物。墓室内葬具有棺、椁和帐幄。墓室底部中心有“腰坑”,常见殉狗,也有殉人的。殉狗是为墓主人警戒,殉人似有奠基意义。这些都是为死者安居并保护其在阴曹地府不受侵害而设。
  
  The tomb ramp is characteristic of large tombs. From the earth's surface it slopes down to the base of the pit, with some of the ramps having stairs. Within the tomb ramp sacrificial people and horses were buried. The tomb chamber was usually square or rectangular, with surface areas ranging from tens of square meters to hundreds of square meters. The four walls of the tomb chamber often had two platforms, the second of which held more human sacrifices or tools. Within the tomb chamber, the inner coffin which held the tomb's occupant was encased in a wooden structure, which was topped by a canopy roof. At the center of the tomb floor was the waist pit, commonly containing a sacrificial dog and sometimes a human. The sacrificed dog served to guard the tomb's occupant, and the sacrificed human seems to have had an offertory purpose. This was all done in order for the tomb occupant to live a quiet and protected existence in the underworld, shielded from disturbance or intrusion.
  
  在奴隶社会里,祭祀是礼制的重要组成部分,是国家的大事,多数由国王亲自主持。祭祀对象包括天地、山川、日月、风雨、祖先、神鬼等等。在王陵遗址发出的2000余座祭祀坑中,白骨累累,显示了殷代奴隶的悲惨情景。把人强行处死后埋入坑内祭祀祖先,称为人祭。人祭坑排列有序,分为若干组,每组代表一次祭祀活动。有活埋的,有先处死后再埋入的。祭祀的人牲,多为战俘,也有一些是奴隶。  I
  
  n slave society, sacrifices and offerings were an important part of the social code. It was an important affair of state, and many sacrificial and offertory rituals were presided over by the king himself. Recipients of the offerings included Heaven and Earth, the mountains and the rivers, the sun and moon, wind and rain, the ancestors, spirits and ghosts, etc. Among the more than 2000 sacrificial pits unearthed at the Royal Cemetery site, the bones of the dead are countless, demonstrating the tragic plight of Shang slaves. By the term human sacrifice, we mean executing people and afterwards interring them in a pit in order to worship the ancestors. The human sacrifice pits were arranged in an orderly fashion, divided into certain numbers with each group representing an instance of sacrifice. Some of the victims were buried alive, and some were first executed and then interred. Most of the victims of human sacrifice were prisoners, but some were also slaves.
  
  六、M260大墓展厅 (结合版面和实物进行介绍)
  
  M260位于殷墟王陵遗址东区,在1984年9月进行了正式考古发掘,闻名遐迩的司母戊大方鼎传说1939年就出土于这里。司母戊鼎是世界上罕见的青铜重器,鼎重832.84公斤,高133厘米,口长110厘米,宽79厘米,足高46厘米,壁厚6厘米,是迄今为止出土鼎中最大最重的。
  
  Tomb number 260 is located in the eastern zone of Yinxu's Royal Cemetery site. Formal archaeological excavation has been in progress since September 1984. According to hearsay, the widely known Si Mu Wu square ding-cauldron was excavated from here in 1939. The Si Mu Wu square ding-cauldron is one of the most rare pieces of bronze ware in the world 133 centimeters tall, the cauldron has a mouth that is 110 by 79 centimeters large. Its legs are 46 centimeters long, and the bronze walls are 6 centimeters thick. It is the largest ding-cauldron ever excavated.
  
  M260墓呈“甲”字形,墓道在墓室南部,呈坡状,墓室为一长方形竖穴坑。墓室底有一腰坑,内有一人一大玉戈。在墓室西北角填坑内有8把木。在墓道填土内,有集中在一起的22个人头骨。墓室填土中有6个个体的人骨,椁室填土内有5个个体人骨。传说1939年该墓出土了司母戊大鼎,更显示出墓主人的尊贵。探讨该墓主人身份之迷,成为殷墟考古的重要目标之一。
  
  Tomb number 260 is shaped like the Chinese character 甲 jia. The single tomb ramp slopes upward from the southern part of the rectangular pit. At the bottom of the pit is a waist pit, inside of which are one person and one large jade ge-dagger-axe. In the northwestern corner of the pit is a backfilled hole which contained 8 pieces of wood. 22 human skulls were found together in the earth used to backfill the tomb ramp. The tomb's backfill contained six individual human skeletons, and the backfill of the wooden chamber held five individual human skeletons. Reportedly in 1939 the Si Mu Wu square ding-cauldron was excavated here, another indication that the tomb's occupant was well-respected. Since the identity of the tomb's occupant is lost, it has become an important objective of Yinxu archaeology to discover it.
  
  七、祭祀场 “国之大事,在祀与戎。”
  
  随着墓主人的安葬,祭祀杀牲仪式逐渐开始。这里是当年商王祭祀先祖的祭祀场所。在王陵大墓的周围,共发现2000余座祭祀坑,我们现在看到的仅仅只是其中的一部分。主要采用了地下封存、地表砂石标识、复原展示的方法进行展示。为避免风雨侵蚀,我们对复原展示的祭祀坑加盖了玻璃罩进行保护。
  
  An ancient Chinese text called the Commentary of Zuo states that the important affairs of state reside in ritual and war. Following the peaceful burial of the tomb's occupant, ritual sacrifice of domesticated animals started and increased in magnitude. The Royal Cemetery was a sacrifice site for Shang kings to make offerings to the ancestors and spirits. In the vicinity of the Royal Cemetery's large tombs, there are altogether over 2000 sacrificial pits. The ones we see today are only a small fraction. Our main principle is to preserve the underground tombs by marking them aboveground with gravel that represents the shape of the original tomb, thereby restoring the site for posterity while still giving visitors a glimpse of the Royal Cemetery as it must have looked in the past. In order to avoid damage and erosion from the elements, we have covered the sacrificial pits with a glass cover to for constant protection.
  
  这些祭祀坑排列整齐的称“排葬坑”,比较分散的称为“散葬坑”。埋人的坑大多是长方形竖穴,坑内所埋人骨有全躯的,有身首分离的,也有无头躯体。另外,还有一种是方形坑,是专门埋葬人头骨的。
  
  These sacrificial pits which are neatly arranged are known as ordered burial pits, while those that are relatively scattered are known as scattered burial pits. Most of the pits containing human burials are shaped like rectangles perpendicular to the ground, so that the entire buried person's skeleton could fit standing up into the grave. Some consist of decapitated corpses, and others are missing either the head or the body. And still another type of pit is square shaped, for special burials of only human skulls.
  
  在商代,每当祭祀时商王都会把人像牛、羊、猪等牲畜一样供奉给祖先和神灵,这种制度被学者们称为是人牲制度。被杀的人牲绝大多数为战俘,少数为奴隶。商王和贵族奴隶主在祭祀祖先、祈祷神灵佑护、建筑宫室和求年问雨时都要用人牲,这里也就成为商王祭祀祖先的一个大型公共祭祀场所。里面埋葬着大量祭祀牺牲的遗骸。其中仅1976年发掘的191座祭祀坑中,就发现1178具人骨架。据不完全统计,殷墟甲骨文中有关人祭的甲骨有1350片,卜辞1992条,共用人牲13052人。不仅如此,商王或贵族死后,还用人殉葬,称为人殉。人殉的数量,根据墓主人身份的高低,少则1人,多则达200多人。像M1001大墓殉人就多达225人。
  
  During the Shang period, whenever the king made sacrifices he offered both humans and livestock, like cattle, sheep and pigs, to the ancestors and spirits. This system is known by scholars as the human and livestock sacrificial system. The vast majority of human sacrifices were prisoners of war, but a few were slaves. The king and aristocratic slave owners, when they were making offerings to the ancestors, praying to the spirits for blessings, constructing palaces or seeking the yearly rains, they all wanted to use humans and livestock. This place became a large scale site for the performance of ancestral sacrifices by the Shang kings. Inside the burials are large amounts of the remains of ritual sacrifice. In just the 191 sacrificial pits excavated in 1976, 178 were discovered to possess human skeletons. According to incomplete statistics, 1350 oracle-bone fragments together containing 1992 inscriptions are related to human sacrifice, altogether describing the sacrifice of 13052 human beings. Moreover, after the death of Shang kings or nobles, humans victims were buried in the pit as well, a practice known as live human burial. The number of humans buried alive, depending on the rank of the tomb's occupant, could be as few as one, or as many as over 200 people. For example, large Tomb Number 1001 contained as many as 225 humans buried alive.
  
  商王的祭祀活动是频繁的。在祭祀活动中,有时祭祀一位祖先,有时几位祖先一起祭奠。祭祀的对象除盘庚后的诸王,有时把商代的先公先王一起祭奠。每次祭祀所用的牺牲,有的是牲畜,有的是人。我们看到的这些祭祀坑就是当年的兽祭坑。它们是1976年春发掘的,里面埋葬的都是墓主人生前所使用过或喜爱的动物,主要有马、牛、羊、犬、象、猪、狐等,其中马有117匹。咱们可以看一下这边的坑里埋葬的就是一匹马。位了保护遗址,我们采取了地下封存,在祭祀坑原址上按考古发掘情况进行复原的方式进行展示。请大家随我来看一下这座展坑。这是一座象猪同埋坑,里面是一只幼象。大象是河南中原的象征。根据殷墟考古发现和甲骨文记载证实,远在3000年前,中原一带气候温暖湿润,林草茂密。当时河南省广大地区,都曾有野象活动。因此,河南省的古称为豫。
  
  Sacrifices performed by the Shang kings were frequent. During the sacrificial ritual, sometimes one ancestor was offered to, and sometimes several ancestors together received cult. The recipients of sacrifices, except for those reigning after Pan Geng, were all kings, and sometimes the former kings and nobles were offered to together. Every offering used livestock or humans. The sacrificial pits we are looking at right now are animal burial. Excavated in the spring of 1976, the pits contain animals either used by tomb occupants or ones that tomb occupants were fond of. Primarily there are horses, cattle, sheep, dogs, elephants, pigs, and foxes, among which horses were the most common, numbering 117. We can see below on this side that what is buried in this pit is a horse. To keep the site intact, we have preserved the the excavated pits while still allowing visitors to see some of the exhibited contents. Based on the archaeological discoveries at Yinxu, and confirmed by the oracle-bone inscription record, the climate of North Central China 3000 years ago was warm and moist, the land covered in thick forests. During that time, Henan province and the surrounding area has inhabited by wild elephants. This is why the ancient character for Henan Province, pronounced Yu, has the component for elephant in it.
  
  八、观景台 前面就是观景台。
  
  它由著名建筑学家杨鸿勋先生设计。完全采用原木,台高三层,古朴典雅,为王陵遗址增添了一处游览、休息的场所。现在就请大家与我一道登上观景台,一睹王陵遗址的风采。
  
  Ahead of us is the viewing platform, designed by famous Chinese architect Yang Hongxun. Completely made out of wood, it is three stories tall, simple yet elegant. It adds to the Royal Cemetery a place for visitors to see the entire site, as well as to take a break. Now please climb the tower with me, to see the splendor of the Royal Cemetery.
  
  (观景台上)来到观景台,我们会感到眼前豁然开朗。高台远眺,王陵遗址的全貌也尽收眼底。王陵遗址位于安阳市西北郊洹水北岸的侯家庄西北岗、武官村北地的高地上。与南面的殷墟宫殿宗庙区隔河相望,与东部的洹北商城遥相呼应,是殷墟遗址中重要的组成部分。这些大墓大约建于商王武丁时期,而终于商王帝辛时期,前后营建达200余年。这些大墓在历史上虽多次盗掘,但仍出土了大量精美的青铜器、玉石器和白陶等。解放前这里出土的器物目前保存在我国的宝岛--台湾。在这里,我们希望这些文物能够早日回到它们的故乡--安阳,或者大家有机会到宝岛一睹为快。
  
  Arriving at the top of the viewing platform, we can see before our very eyes how extensive the Royal Cemetery is. From the high platform we can see far, allowing us a panoramic view of the entire site. The Royal Cemetery is located in the northwest suburbs of Anyang, on the northern bank of the Huan River in an area known as the northwestern high ground above Houjiazhuang and Wuguancun villages.  Facing the main Yinxu palace-temple complex to the south, the Royal Cemetery is west of Huanbei Shang city, making it an important component in the greater Yinxu site. These tombs were constructed from the reign of King Wu Ding to the reign of King Di Xin, covering a period of more than 200 years. Although these tombs were robbed several times throughout history, archaeologists were still able to excavate a large number of exquisite bronzes, jade and stone ware, and white pottery. All of the materials excavated before the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949 are currently in China's treasured island, Taiwan. We hope that soon these cultural relics will be returned to their rightful place--Anyang. Either that or everyone can have the opportunity to visit Taiwan for a quick look.
  
  在王陵东区,发现了五座大墓。大墓周围分布着2000多座陪葬墓和祭祀坑。在西区的八座大墓周围只发现了100多座陪葬墓和祭祀坑。再仔细看一下西区的八座大墓,除了中间那座未完工的外,是否注意到它们之间有什么共性?这些大墓都有4条墓道,考古学家们认为,4条墓道是商代王陵的标志,也就印证了这个地方就是商代晚期的王家陵园。先秦的王陵大墓仍然保持着这一特点。像最近发现的湖北九连墩楚墓就是这样的。而在东区的5座大墓中,只有1座为4条墓道,其余3座为2条墓道,1座为1条墓道的大墓,规格次于西区。

 

  translated by Billy French
  
  傅比利翻译

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

内容相关:

收藏 推荐 打印 | 录入:Zoe913 | 阅读:0 次
相关文章
英语评论请尽量用-纯英文-来评论吧!
表情: 姓名: 字数
点评:
英文歌曲
推荐英语学习