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“明十三陵”中英双语导游词

[日期:04-08] 来源:网络  作者:未知 [字体: ]

“明十三陵”中英双语导游词


  景点讲解题
  
  题一:明十三陵概况及神道(历史沿革;今日十三陵;石牌坊;大红门;长陵神功圣德碑;石像生;棂星门)
  
  题二:明十三陵概况及长陵(历史沿革;今日十三陵;明成祖朱棣;长陵布局;长陵祾恩殿;人殉制度)
  
  题三:定陵(明神宗朱翊钧;朱翊钧的皇后;定陵考古发掘的过程;定陵地宫布局及陈设;金井;定陵出土文物)


  
  讲解提示
  
  明十三陵的环境不复杂,但内容丰富。第一题讲解内容可从概况开始,经牌楼到神路为一部分。这部分内容有线路可供遵循,顺序讲解即可。第二题注意概况的内容和长陵的衔接。第三题讲解内容以定陵为主,讲解顺序应以教材章节为参考。
  

 


  第二部      模拟讲解词
  
  英文范例
  
  题一:明十三陵概况及神道
  
  Good morning ladies and gentlemen, today we are going to pay a visit to the Thirteen Ming Tombs. First, I will give you a brief introduction of it. The Ming Tombs are located in Changping District, about 50 kilometers on the northwest of Beijing. This imperial cemetery covers an area of 40 square kilometers with 13 Ming emperors,23 empresses, many imperial concubines, princes and princesses buried there. These tombs are the best-preserved of all Chinese imperial tombs. The Ming Dynasty started from 1368 to 1644, lasting 276 years. Altogether 16 emperors ruled in the Ming Dynasty. But out of the 16 emperors, 13 emperors were buried in Beijing Ming Dynasty Tombs area. The first Ming Emperor Zhu Yuanzhang was buried in Xiaoling of Nanjing. The second emperor had no tomb. The seventh emperor Jing Tai was buried at Jinshan Mountain in the western suburbs of Beijing.
  
  The Sacred Way, that we visit now, was originally designed for the Changling Tomb. The sacred way to other tombs originally from this one, it became the general sacred way for all. Along the 7.3kilometers long sacred way stands the Marble Archway, the Big Rad Gate, Tablet Tower, Stone Statues and Dragon and Phoenix Gate. Now let's take a look from the southern end.
  
  Firstly let's look at the Marble Archway. The Marble Archway was built in 1540 during the reign of Emperor Jiajing in the Ming Dynasty for promoting the meritorious and virtuous deeds of the feudal rulers, but still in an excellent condition. It is 14 meters high and 29 meters wide and it has 5 arches supported by 6 marble pillars with beautiful carvings of dragons, lions, lotus flowers and clouds. It is the earliest and best-preserved stone archway still existing in China.
  
  500 meters to the north of the Stone Archway stands the main gate of the mausoleum, called the Big Red Gate. The gate has three passageways: the central passageway was for the deceased emperor only, the living emperor and this ministers as well as the imperial family members had to use the side openings when they came to pay their homage to their ancestors. And nobody could enter the gate on horseback for there are two stone tablets placed on either side of the gate, inscribed with the words:“ Officials and others should sidmount from their horseback”。 Those who violated the rule would be punished for disrespect.
  
  Passing the cypress trees, lies the double-eaces Stele Pavilion, or the Stele Pavilion of Divine Merit and Sacred Virtue. Inside the tower there is a huge tablet, 7.9 meters high, which stands on the back of a giant stone tortoise in the middle of the Tablet Tower. On the table inscribed with the words: “Tablet of Diving Merits and Sagely Virtue of Chang Ling of the Great Ming.”
  
  Not far from the Stele Pavilion there are 18 pairs of stone sculptures and beasts along the Sacred Way. The custom to put up stone sculptures in front of the imperial cemeteries started as early as the Qin and Han dynasties in Chinese history. It shows the supreme authority and dignity of the emperors and served as ceremonial guards. The Stone Statues along the Sacred Way are totally 36 altogether, with 24 stone animals and 12 stone human figures. They are 6 kinds of animals, 4 in each group. The first group of animals is 4 lions arranged in the front, followed by Xiezhi , camels, elephants, Qilin unicorns and horsrs. In ancient time, lions symbolized forzce, Xiezhi stood for just ,camel was for transportation, elephant was a symbol of universal peace, Qilin was for warding off evil spirits and the horse was used in battle. The stone human figures are: four civil officials, four military officers and four meritorious officials. These stone statues represent the best sculpture craftsmanship in the Ming Dynasty.
  
  The Dragon and Phjoenix Gate is located at the end of the road of the stone statues. This gate is also called “Flame Gate”, for the flame carvings are on the top of the gate. It consists of three archways and beyond the gate are the paths to the separate tombs. The gate here represents the “Heavenly Gate”, which means by going through the Heavenly Gate he would be able to ascend to heaven or his soul would be raised up to the paradise. The thirteen tombs are located on the food of a hill behind the Dragon and Phoenix Gate.

 


  
  题二:明十三陵概况及长陵
  
  Today we will go to visit the Thirteen Ming Tombs. First, I will give you a bried introduction of it. The Ming Tombs are located in Changping Distrct, about 50 kilometers on the northwest of Beijing. This imperial cemetery covers an area of 40 square kilometers with 13 Ming emperors, 23 empresses, many imperial concubines, princes and princesses buried there. These tombs are the bestpreserved of all Chinese imperial tombs. The Ming Dynasty started from 1368 to 1644, lasting 276 years. Altogether 16 emperors ruled in the Ming Dynasty. But out of the 16 emperors, 13 emperors were buried in Beijing Ming Tombs area. Because the first Ming Emperors Zhu Yuanzhang was buried in Xiaoling of Nanjing. The second emperor had no tomb. The seventh emperor Jing Tai was buried at Jinshan Mountain in the western suburbs of Beijing.
  
  Here we have come to Changling. Changling is the tomb of the 3rd Ming Emperor Yongle's tomb. It is the head tomb of the thirteen Ming Tombs and the largest tomb of them all,and it is also the best-preserved one in this tomb area. Emperor Zhu Di, the 3rd emperor of the Ming Dynasty, he had made great achievements in political, military, economic, cultural and diplomatic fields during the 22 years of his reign. He was buried together with his wife Empress Xu. Changling is located at the foot of the Heavenly Longevity Hill. Construction of Changling started in 1409. It took 18 year and was completed in 1427. The layout of Changling just followed the example of Xiaoling in Nanjing. Structures along the central axis are the Front Gate to the tomb, the Gate of Eminent Favor, the hall of Eminent Favor, the Dragon and Phonix Gate, Soul Tower and the wall-encircled Earth Mound. The design of Changling was square in the front and round at the rear, representing the old believing: the heaven was round while the earth square. The Gate of Eminent Favor and the Hall of Eminent Favor on the central axis are still standing today. That is why we say that Changling is the best preserved one in the Ming Tombs area. At present the complete above-ground complex opens to the public. Let's go to visit the major architectures one by one.
  
  Changling is divided into three courtyards. The first courtyard is from the Gate of Changling to the Gate of Eminent Favor. There is a stone stele housed in a pacilion on the east side of the front gate. The tablet is on the back of a huge mythical animal. Originally there wa no inscription on it. The inscriptions now on three sides in Manchu and Han languages were written later by Qing Emperor Shun Zhi in 1659, Qianlong in 1785 and Jia Qing in 1804 after their visits to the Ming Tombs. The second courtyard is from the Gate of Eminent Favor to the Hall of Eminent Favor. And the third courtyard is behind the Hall of Eminent Favor to the Soul Tower.
  
  The Hall of Eminent Favor is the place where the sacrificial ceremonies were held by the later emperors to their ancestors. It is one of the largest wooden building in China and it is supported by 60 wooden columns made of Nanmu. Nanmu wood is a special kind of wood coming from the mountains in the southern part of our country. This kind of valuable timber came from Sichuan, Hubei, Huan and Jiangxi provinces. The 32 huge Nanmu wood pillars inside the hall are 12.58meters high. The 4 pillars in the center are the biggest, each 14.3 meters high and 1.17 meters in diameter, all made of single trunk of a tree. They are so big that two people can't get their arms around it. Now this hall is used as a hall for exhibition of the historical relics unearthed from Dingling.
  
  According to the historical records on Ming Tombs in Beijing, human sacrifices were found in the first three Ming tombs. They are Changling, Xianling and Jingling. The record has it that 16 concubines were buried for the dead in the tomb of Changling, 5 in Xianling and 10 in Jingling. The emperor's concubines and female attendants were first forced to commit suicide, then buried in a brick pit called “well”。 The human sacrifices were not buried in the main burial tomb together with the emperor but in “wells” nearby, on either side of the tomb. The East and West Wells can still be seen in the tombs area today. This system did not end until the death of the sixth Ming Emperor Yingzong, who left instructions for abolishing the system of human sacrifice.
  

 


  题三:定陵
  
  Today we are going to pay a visit to Dingling. Dingling is the tomb of Emperor Zhu Yijun, whose reign title is Wan Li, the 13th Emperor of the Ming Dynasty. He ruled China for 48 years from 1573 to 1620, the longest ruling period of all the 16 emperors in the Ming Dynasty. The constructiong of his tomb started in 1584 when Emperor Wan Li was as young as only 22years old. It took 6 years and completed in 1590 and it cost 8 million taels of peasant uprising. It was not restored until the reign of Qing Emperor Qianlong. In 1914 the tomb was burnt down again. Now we can only see the marble terrace of the Gate of Eminent Favor and the Hall of Eminent Favor.
  
  In 1620 when Emperor Zhu Yinjun died, he was buried together with his two wives, Empress Xiao Duan, the first wife and Empress Xiao Jing, the second wife. The first wife had no son while the second wife had one. But the second wife died in 1612, eight years earlier than the emperor. Being a concubine of the emperor at that time, she was not entitled to the privilege of sharing the emperor's tomb, so she was buried in a nearby tomb as imperial concubines. After her grandson came to the throne, her coffin was moved into same tomb with Emperor Zhu Yijin.
  
  Dingling is the only one of the thirteen Ming Tombs excavated so far. In May 1956 an archaeological team found some decayed bricks at the southwest side of the surrounding wall outside the Soul Tower showing that there had been an archway. Later trace of words like “the gate of leading tunnel” was found on the wall. This offered a very important clue for the tomb excavation. That was their starting point and then the archeological workers began to dig the first emploration trench. Two months later they found a narrow, bricked wall tunnel, which runs zigzag to the back of the mound. From there they dug another tunnel, which were considered as the second tunnel. After they opened second stone tunnel, a stone tablet was uncovered at the end of the tunnel, an inscription carved on it read: from this stone 160 feet further and 35 feet deep to the “ Diamond wall”, which indicated the sealing wall of the Underground Palace. Then they dug up a third tunnel and finally found the“ Diamond wall”, the entrance of the Underground Palace. The excavation work started in May 1956 and it took two years and was completed in 1958.
  
  The Underground Palace is 27 meters deep with a total floor space of 1,195 square meters. It consists of 5 chambers: the antechamber, the central chamber, the rear chamber and two annex chambers on the left and right of the middle chamber. The vaulted halls built of stone, without a single beam or column.
  
  The left side hall greet tourists at first. Inside the hall was a coffin platform, paved with square bricks. Passing the stone gate of the left side hall, we now enter the rear chamber. It is the main chamber and the largest chamber in the Underground Palace. The platform is the coffin-dais in this chamber. There are three coffins placed on the coffin-plarform. The coffin in the middle was the coffin of Emperor Wanli. The two coffins on each side were for his two wives. There were also 26 red-lacquered on both sides of the three coffins. A square hole located in the center of the coffin-platform is called “Gold Well”。 It was filled with yellow clay just to show the sacred connection between the coffin and the earth. In this way it would make the positive and the negative in harmony. The “Gold-Well” on the coffin platform together with the jade pieces was considered the highest burial in ancient China, known as “Gold-Well”and “Jade-Burial”,which means to bury the dead at the Gold-Well and among jade pieces. Now let's move on to the middle chamber. There are three marble thrones placed inside for Emperor Wan Li and his two empresses. The two marble thrones in the front were for the two wives which carved with phoneix on the back of the throne. The rear one was for the emperor which carved with dragon design. In front of each throne were placed a set of five glazed pottery altar-pieces, forward, we reach the front chamber without any ornament. Out of the front chamber and the entrance, we now finish our tour of the mysterious underground palace.
  
  The Chinese archaeologists unearthed many historical relics. Totally there are more than 3,000 pieces of precious objects unearthed from Dingling, mainly gold plates,basins, cups, bowls and spoons of various sizes, gold and silver ingots, jewelries and etc.
  
  The gold crown was the emperor's imperial crown woven with very fine gold filaments with two dragons playing with a pearl on it. It is neat and graceful, displaying the high artistry in arats and crafts in the Ming Dynasty. It is a national treasure for its meticulous craftsmanship, which requires very high artistic level in the craftsmanship.

 


  
  中文范例
  
  题一:明十三陵及神道
  
  各位朋友大家好!今天我们参观的景点是明十三陵,现在我们已经来到了北京的远郊昌平区,即将进入明十三陵景区。利用这段时间,我来给大家介绍一下明十三陵的历史背景。
  
  明十三陵位于北京市昌平区北部天寿山山麓,距市中心约50公里,陵区占地面积80平方公里。因为明迁都北京后,有13位皇帝埋葬在这里,所以称为十三陵。明十三陵的修建开始于永乐七年,即1409年,一直延续到清朝初年,1644年。营建时间前后200多年,一共埋葬有13位皇帝、23位皇后以及众多的嫔妃和随葬人员,形成了体系完整、规模宏大、气势磅礴的陵寝建筑群,它是我国规模最大的一处帝王陵墓群,也是世界上保存完整、埋葬皇帝较多的帝王陵墓群。2003年被联合国教科文组织列入《世界遗产名录》。
  
  明十三陵的修建开始于明朝第三位皇帝明成祖朱棣。1407年明成祖朱棣的皇后徐氏去世,朱棣命礼部尚书赵羾和江西术士廖钧卿等人来北京一带卜选“吉壤”,以便安葬徐皇后。选择陵址的工作在初期进行得很不顺利,直到两年后,即永乐七年,1409年,才选定了现在的这篇天寿山地区。这一带青山环绕,绿水长流,土地肥美,北部有龙脉,山前左有青龙,右有虎峪,正好符合了阴阳五行中四方之神的位置,即东青龙,西白虎,南朱雀,北玄武,是一块绝佳的风水宝地。廖钧卿等人把陵址画图后呈给朱棣,朱棣亲自来看后非常满意,赐名为天寿山,开始动工兴建陵寝。经过四年的修建,到1413年地宫竣工,安葬了徐皇后,并命名为“长陵”。此后,明朝的历代皇帝,也陆续在这里修建了陵寝,从1409年延续到1644年,于是便形成了今天的规模。
  
  不过,清朝初年清兵入关后,为了报复金人将清太祖的祖坟毁掉,曾经烧毁了明十三陵的地面建筑。后来到乾隆时期,为了笼络汉人,他下令又重新修缮了陵区。雍正皇帝时下诏寻找朱元璋的直系后裔,封为世袭恩侯,并派专人管理明陵。
  
  新中国成立以后,对这里进行了大规模的开发,并且开放了的长陵、定陵和昭陵,并发掘了定陵的地宫。现在这里已经成为了全国重点风景名胜区。
  
  讲到这里可能有团友要问了:明朝不是有十六个皇帝么?怎么这里只有十三个皇帝的陵寝呢?
  
  是这样的,明太祖朱元璋因为建都南京,所以他的陵墓的南京,就是明孝陵。朱元璋死后,皇孙朱允炆继承皇位,他采取了削藩的政策,结果他的四皇叔,即朱元璋的四子,驻守北京的燕王朱棣发动了“靖难之役”,经过四年的作战,朱棣攻破了南京城,建文帝朱允炆下落不明,所以这里就没有他的陵墓。少的第三个皇帝是明朝的第七代皇帝朱祁钰,他的事情还要从第六代皇帝英宗朱祁镇说起。朱祁镇在位期间,在1449年,在宦官王振的怂恿下,朱祁镇率军亲征蒙古族的瓦剌部,结果在河北怀来的土木堡兵败,被瓦剌部俘虏。这个时间称为“土木之变”。国不能一日无君,所以他的同父异母兄弟朱祁钰就被封为景泰帝。一年后朱祁镇被瓦剌部放归,刚刚夺得帝位的景泰帝自然不肯让出皇位,他把朱祁镇关在南宫,长达近8年。直到1457年,在景泰帝并重时,英宗朱祁镇才通过“夺门之变”重新夺回了皇位。景泰帝朱祁钰很快病死,朱祁镇废掉了朱祁钰的帝号,以亲王的礼节吧朱祁钰安葬在了北京西郊的金山口,所以在十三陵中没有景泰帝的陵墓。这样一来,大家一定都明白了为什么这里叫做十三陵了吧。十三陵以时间先后依次为:长陵(成祖朱棣)、献陵(仁宗朱高炽)、景陵(宣宗朱瞻基)、裕陵(英宗朱祁镇)、茂陵(宪宗朱见深)、泰陵(孝宗朱祐樘)、康陵(武宗朱厚照)、永陵(世宗朱厚熜)、昭陵(穆宗朱载垕)、定陵(神宗朱翊钧)、庆陵(光宗朱常洛)、徳陵(熹宗朱由校)、思陵(思宗朱由检)。
  
  好,现在请大家往右侧的车窗外看,可以看到一个石牌坊,这就是明十三陵陵区的标志性建筑,建于明嘉靖十九年(1540年),至今已有四百六十多年历史了。这个牌坊是5间6柱11楼,高14米,宽达到了28.86米,是现在国内保存下来最大、建筑等级最高的大型仿木石牌坊。为什么要在这里建一个牌坊呢?这一悬着和风水有关,原因是陵区南侧的龙山和虎山相距比较远,没有连在一起,这是风水上的一个缺陷,石牌坊建在这里,这好弥补了这一不足,使十三陵的地势贯通起来。从这里开始,就进入了明十三陵的神道。这个神道既是明十三陵的总神道,又是长陵的神道。神道长7.3千米,这是我国历代修建的帝王陵中神道最长的,其主要作用就是让皇帝灵魂通过。在这条神道上,从南向北依次建有石牌坊、三孔石桥、大红门、长陵神功圣德碑亭、石像生、棂星门、南五孔石桥、七孔石桥、北五孔石桥等建筑。
  
  好,现在我们已经到达了明十三陵的正门处。请大家带好随身物品下车,我们从这里走过去。
  
  大红门就是陵墓区的正门儿,也叫大宫门。这里距石牌坊1.25千米。门是南向的,分三洞,在这个门里边就是陵墓区。在门前左右两侧立下马碑两块,正方两面都刻着“官员人等至此下马”8个字。下马碑是告诫人们这里是帝后陵寝,必须恭敬小心。在古代皇帝和大臣到这来祭陵,至此也必须下马。大红门正门是皇帝皇后棺椁及各种极品的通道,左门是皇帝谒陵时行走的,右门是大臣 祭陵时行走的通道。让我们进入看看。
  
  好,现在大家可以看到前边有一个碑亭。这个碑亭是重檐歇山顶的建筑,正方形,四面有门,里边的赑屃驮着巨碑,这是长陵的神功颂德碑。正面是明仁宗朱高炽为他的父亲朱棣写的3000多字的颂德碑文,而背面刻得则是乾隆的御制诗《哀明陵三十韵》。碑身的东面刻得是清政府修缮陵墓的花费,西侧刻得是嘉庆九年(1840年)御制诗,说的是明朝亡国的教训得失。
  
  过了碑亭,我们继续沿着神道往前走。大家可能发现了,在神路两侧,有很多石雕。他们叫石像生。长陵的石像生以这对石望柱开始,石望柱之后的800米的神道上排列着石兽12对、石人6对。石兽每种两对,两卧两立。依次是:石望柱、狮子、獬豸、骆驼、大象、麒麟、马,然后是武臣、文臣和勋臣各有四人。有朋友可能要问:为什么要设置这些石像生呢?其实原因很简单,它们代表的是皇帝生前的仪仗,建筑这些,都是为了体现帝王生前的仪仗和死后的尊严。所以体积都非常大,嗲可的都非常精细。
  
  在神路的尽头是棂星门,俗称“龙凤门”,这里的棂星门为三开间,门中央位置上,装饰有三个火焰宝珠,所以这里也被叫做火焰牌坊。棂星门意思是“天门”,即皇帝皇后等人的棺椁通过此门后,灵魂便升入了天堂。
  
  通过这道棂星门,长陵马上就到了,请大家收拾一下随身物品,带好照相机,我们准备参观十三陵之首--长陵。
  

 


  题二:明十三陵概况及长陵
  
  (前往长陵的旅游车上)
  
  各位朋友,今天我们要参观的景点是明十三陵中的定陵。利用这段时间,我来给大家简单介绍一下明十三陵的概况。
  
  明十三陵位于北京市昌平区北部天寿山山麓,因为明朝迁都北京后,有十三位皇帝埋葬在这里,所以称为十三陵。明十三陵的修建开始于永乐七年,即1409年,一直延续到清朝初年,1644年。营建时间前后200多年,一共埋葬有13位皇帝、23位皇后以及众多的嫔妃和随葬人员,形成了体系完整、规模宏大、气势磅礴的陵寝建筑群,它是我国规模最大的一处帝王陵墓群,也是世界上保存完整、埋葬皇帝较多的帝王陵墓群。2003年被联合国教科文组织列入《世界遗产名录》。
  
  讲到这里可能有团友要问了:明朝不是有十六个皇帝吗,怎么在这里只有十三个皇帝的陵寝呢?
  
  是这样的,明太祖朱元璋因为建都南京,所以他的陵墓在南京,就是明孝陵;朱元璋死后,皇孙朱允炆继承皇位,他采取了削藩的政策,结果他的死皇叔,即朱元璋的四子,驻守北京的燕王朱棣发动了“靖难之役”,经过四年的作战,朱棣攻破了南京城,建文帝朱允炆下落不明,所以这里就没有他的陵墓。少的第三个皇帝是明朝的第七代皇帝朱祁钰,他的事情还要从第六代皇帝英宗朱祁镇说起。朱祁镇在位期间,在1449年,在宦官王振的怂恿下,朱祁镇率军亲征蒙古瓦剌部,结果在河北怀来的土木堡兵败,被瓦剌部俘虏。这个时间称为“土木之变”。过不能一日无军,所以他的同父异母兄弟朱祁钰就被册封为景泰帝。一年后朱祁镇被瓦剌部放归,刚刚夺得地位的景泰帝自然不肯让出皇位,他把朱祁镇关在南宫,长达8年。直到1457年,在景泰帝病重时,英宗朱祁镇才通过“夺门之变”重新夺回了皇位。景泰帝朱祁钰很快病死,朱祁镇废掉了朱祁钰的帝号,一亲王的礼节吧朱祁钰安葬在了北京西郊的金山口,所以在十三陵中没有景泰帝的陵墓。这样一来,大家一定都明白了为什么这里叫做十三陵了吧。十三陵以时间先后依次为:长陵(成祖朱棣)、献陵(仁宗朱高炽)、景陵(宣宗朱瞻基)、裕陵(英宗朱祁镇)、茂陵(宪宗朱见深)、泰陵(孝宗朱祐樘)、康陵(武宗朱厚照)、永陵(世宗朱厚熜)、昭陵(穆宗朱载垕)、定陵(神宗朱翊钧)、庆陵(光宗朱常洛)、徳陵(熹宗朱由校)、思陵(思宗朱由检)。
  
  各位朋友,请看窗外,我们现在来到了明十三陵中规模最大、修建时间最长、保存最完好的众陵之首--长陵。请大家整理好东西下车。
  
  长陵位于天寿山主峰南麓,占地约12公顷。始建于公园1409年,先后历时18年建成,陵内葬有明代第三位皇帝--成祖朱棣和他的皇后徐氏。
  
  说道明朝永乐皇帝朱棣,他是明太祖朱元璋的第四个儿子,11岁就被封为燕王,21岁就藩,就在今天的北京。朱元璋死后,朱允炆即位,年号建文。在建文元年(1399),朱棣发动“靖难之役”,到1402年时从侄子朱允炆手中夺得皇位,改年号永乐。因北京市他的刑期之地,地理位置又非常重要,于是朱棣在1420年把都城从南京迁到了北京。、
  
  朱棣是一位很有作为的皇帝,他厚文重武,安内攘外,不但在军事上修筑长城,而且又派人编著了《永乐大典》这部我国历史上最大的类书。不但发展农业,让百姓安居乐业,又派郑和下西洋,开拓了海上丝绸之路,加强了与东南亚各国的友好往来。在他所统治的明朝年间,国库充实,政局稳定。我国被收入《世界遗产名录》的文化遗迹中,有4项就是朱棣开创奠基的。他们是北京故宫、北京天坛、明十三陵和湖北武当山道教古建筑群。担他也有许多污点,如成立了特务机构东厂,发动靖难之役夺权,大肆屠杀建文朝大臣,最残酷的是采用活人殉葬制度,他死后,有16妃被赐死殉葬。
  
  长陵的修建开始于1407年,这一年,明成祖朱棣的皇后徐氏去世,朱棣命礼部尚书赵羾和江西术士廖钧卿等人来北京一带卜选“吉壤”,以便安葬徐皇后。选择陵址的工作在初期进行得很不顺利,当时这些人找了很多地方,但是都不成功,开始他们选在了口外的屠家营,可是皇帝姓朱,与“猪”同音,烦了地讳。然互殴又选在了昌平西南的羊山脚下,巧的是后面有个村子叫“狼口峪”,这样也不吉利。之后又选过京西的“燕家台”,又与“晏驾”同音,这更不吉利,因此陵址一直没有选定。直到两年后,即永乐七年,1409年,才选定了现在的这篇天寿山地区。这一带青山环绕,绿水长流,土地肥美,北部有龙脉,山前左有青龙,右有虎峪,正好符合了阴阳五行中四方之神的位置,即东青龙,西白虎,南朱雀,北玄武,是一块绝佳的风水宝地。廖钧卿等人把陵址画图后呈给朱棣,朱棣亲自来看后非常满意,赐名为天寿山,开始动工兴建陵寝。经过四年的修建,到1413年地宫竣工,安葬了徐皇后,并命名为“长陵”。
  
  1424年,65岁的朱棣死在了亲征蒙古的归途中,后来尸体就葬在了我们眼前的这座长陵。
  
  长陵的布局为“前方后园”,整个陵宫建筑南向西偏西9度。主要建筑有陵门、祾恩门、祾恩殿、明楼、宝城、宝顶等。
  
  “前方”部分由三进院落组成。自陵门到祾恩门为第一进院落,东南角有碑亭一座,立于明嘉靖年间,原来无字,清顺治皇帝看过长陵后,在碑的正面用满汉两种文字写了谒陵感受,碑的背面是清乾隆皇帝蟹的明陵八韵。原来还建有神厨和神库,现在都已经不见踪迹了。
  
  第二进院落大门为祾恩门。祾恩门面阔五间,进深二间,坐落在汉白玉的须弥座上,门内就是祾恩殿。祾恩殿是供奉帝后神位和举行祭陵活动的场所,是仿照在家吃太和殿的规制建成的,重演庑殿顶,覆盖着黄琉璃瓦,地上铺的是金砖,九五开间,面积达1938平方米。祾恩殿所有建筑构件的材料全部用的是最好的金丝楠木,也是明代帝王陵中唯一保存完好的祾恩殿,非常珍贵。原来祾恩殿中陈列有大佛龛,现在已经没有了,取而代之的是后人制作的永乐皇帝坐像,大家可以绕到坐像的后边来看一下,可以看到椅背上可有一条龙,而龙头则正对着永乐皇帝的头部,这象征着皇帝是真龙天子。而四周则是出土文物的展览。
  
  第三进院落大门为棂星门,直至明楼,门内明有二柱牌坊、石几筵由石供案和石五供组成,五供中间为为三足的石香炉,两侧为石烛台,再两侧为石花瓶。石几筵北边就是明楼。
  
  “后圆”就是指朱棣的陵墓,由宝城、宝山、方城、明楼组成。石五供后面的建筑是方城,方城之上是明楼,额上写“长陵”二字,内设“大明成祖文皇帝之陵”碑。明楼两侧连宝城,宝城就像是圆形的城堡,高7.3米,周长1千米。宝城围起来的土山就是宝山,中央的高大土丘为宝顶,宝顶下面就是地宫。长陵的地宫尚未发掘,在十三个陵中只有定陵的地宫被打开。
  
  现在,各位一定很想知道,那神秘的地宫是什么样子的吧?参观完长陵后我们就去参观定陵的地下宫殿。现在给大家20分钟的自由活动时间,20分钟后我们再大门口集合。谢谢。
  

 


  题三:明十三陵定陵
  
  各位朋友,现在我们所在的位置是明十三陵中的定陵,这是十三陵中唯一打开地宫的陵,相信大家早已迫不及待,想要一睹三百余年前明朝皇帝地宫的神秘面目。为了大家参观能更加尽兴,我先为大家介绍一下定陵的概况及发掘过程。
  
  定陵位于天寿山的大峪山前,朝南偏东54度。建成于公元1590年,是明朝第十三位皇帝朱翊钧和他的两位皇后孝端和孝靖的合葬墓,也是明十三陵中仅次于长陵、永陵(嘉靖)的第三大陵。先给大家讲讲万历皇帝朱翊钧和他的两位皇后。
  
  朱翊钧生于1563年,1572年即位,改年号为万历,当时他只有10岁,他是明朝在位时间最长的皇帝,共48年。这48年以万历十七年为界,可以分为两个阶段。前一阶段,内有他的母亲皇太后李氏和大太监冯保的约束,外有首辅大臣张居正的辅佐,国家的各方面都有很大的发展。但自从这几个人先后去世以后,朱翊钧几乎变了一个人,不上朝、不批奏折、不去祭祀,完全放弃了做皇帝的责任,终日沉溺于酒色财气。万历十一年(1583),年仅22岁的万历皇帝朱翊钧决定开始为自己修建陵墓,命大臣和风水术士等卜选吉壤,反复研究了许多地点。朱翊钧对这件事十分重视,前后三次亲自到天寿山勘验,最后请皇太后到场,决定在大屿山筹建寿宫。定陵的营建从万历十二年(1584)十一月开工,至万历十八年(1590)六月竣工,历时近6年,整个工程耗银800万两。万历四十八年(1620)朱翊钧驾崩,享年58岁,十月三日安葬于我们眼前的这座定陵。
  
  万历皇帝有连个皇后,孝端皇后和孝靖皇后,孝端皇后王氏,性情温和宽厚,但未能给朱翊钧生子,但她对被朱翊钧冷落的皇长子朱常洛很照顾。王皇后死于1620年四月六日,谥号孝端。
  
  孝靖皇后也姓王,父亲是锦衣卫百户,王氏于万历六年(1578)进宫,当时13岁,进宫后在慈宁宫伺候朱翊钧的母亲孝定太后。一次朱翊钧去给母亲请安时,向王氏索水洗手,私下临幸了王氏,后来生下了皇长子朱常洛,王氏因此被册封为恭妃,但此后王氏一直被冷落。万历三十九年王氏病逝,一年以后皇贵妃的身份下葬。按明朝规定,皇贵妃伺候不能入地宫,于是王氏被葬在了东井左侧的平冈地。朱常洛继位后,追封母亲为皇太后,但还没等举行追封礼仪朱常洛便驾崩。直到第15个皇帝熹宗时才给王氏谥号孝靖,迁葬到定陵地宫。所以定陵地宫中葬有一帝二后。
  
  目前,定陵已成为全国重点风景名胜区,4A级景点,每天都有来自世界各地的旅游者前来参观。
  
  好,下面我来说说定陵的布局情况。
  
  定陵的布局同长陵一样,也是由“前方后圆”的格局组成。整个陵园原来由陵门、祾恩门、祾恩殿、明楼、宝城、宝顶及明楼钱的左右配殿组成。现在定陵的正门应该是第二道门,叫重门,院内没有建筑设施。重门之后为祾恩门,祾恩门内位祾恩殿。经过明末李自成起义、清初多尔衮及日本占领时期的破坏,今天祾恩门及祾恩殿已经不复存在,只留下些基座。现在我们先来看一看祾恩门及祾恩殿遗址。各位,现在我们所站的位置即位定陵祾恩殿的遗址,现在还可以看到当年大殿的柱础。从仅余须弥座台基,我们还可以想见当年的规模。
  
  好,请大家跟随我继续往前走。前面东西两个配殿内事十三陵出土的文物展,定陵共出土各种文物3000多件。第一陈列室主要展出的是皇帝棺椁中出土的文物,过扩谥宝、谥宝、金冠、玉带、金银器皿、丝织品等。最珍贵的是万历皇帝曾经戴过的2顶冕冠、3顶翼善冠和穿过的5件衮服。3顶翼善冠中的1顶为金丝翼善冠,最为精美。全部用金子制成,重862克,高24厘米,用518根0.2毫米的金丝编成。制造水平登峰造极,炉火纯青,令人叹为观止。
  
  第二陈列室主要展出的是两位皇后棺椁中的随葬品,包括凤冠、头饰、宝石及其他两位皇后生前使用过的生活用品,现在各位可以免费参观,咱们十分钟后在明楼前集合。、
  
  (在明楼下)各位请看,这就是定陵的明楼,明楼是一个陵的标志性建筑,也是每个陵的最高建筑。可能有朋友会问了,定陵的祾恩门和祾恩殿都毁于战火,为什么明楼能保存如此完好呢?其实呢,答案很简单,因为定陵的明楼是石质的,这座明楼看起来斗、拱、梁、枋俱全,再加上油漆彩绘像是木结构的,但实际上完全是石质的,故不怕火烧,不怕日晒雨淋,所以才得以如此完好的保存至今。明楼的两侧连接黄绕着周长800米的围墙,叫宝城,宝城正中的高大土丘被称为宝顶,在宝顶下方即是地宫了。现在,请各位随我上宝城,我给大家讲一讲定陵的发掘的经过。
  
  (宝城西侧第一条探沟边)各位朋友,请到这里来,大家肯定很关心当年发掘定陵地宫的情况,这得从1955年说起。这一年的10月15日,当时的中国科学院院长郭沫若、文化部部长沈雁冰、北京市副市长吴晗、《人民日报》社长邓拓、历史研究所第三所长范文澜、全国人大常委会副秘书长张苏6人,联名上书国务院,建议发掘十三陵中的长陵,以研究明史。经周总理的批示后,成立了长陵发掘委员会。经过专家组实地调查后认为i,应在献陵、定陵和庆陵中选一陵试掘,取得经验后再考虑对长陵的发掘。因为当时定陵宝城西南的封土围墙毁坏,露出了券门,为发掘地宫提供了一定线索,于是就决定先发掘定陵。发掘工作于1956年5月正式开始。
  
  发掘人员首先在宝城城墙内侧正对券门的地方,开了第一条长20米,宽3.5米的探沟,探沟见底后,发现了用城砖砌成的通往明楼后面宝城的隧道。这是一条棺椁进葬时用的通道,棺椁进葬后用黄土填实。
  
  为减少发掘的土方量和尽可能少砍伐宝顶上的松柏古树,发掘人员沿着隧道指示的方向又在明楼后面正对宝顶的方向开了第二条长30米、宽10米的探沟,当挖到7.5米的时候,发现了一块小石碑,上刻“此石至金刚墙钱皮十六丈,深三丈五尺”的字样。因为定陵是皇帝生前营造的陵墓,完工后必须将地宫用土封上以等待帝后,这块石碑的作用就是指示方向用的标志。帝后下葬后石碑仍然埋回原处。
  
  发掘队按小石碑指示的方向,在正对明楼的中轴线上又挖了第三条也是最后一条长15米,宽10米的探沟,发现了一条长40米的斜坡石隧道。1957年5月在隧道尽头发现了一个“圭”字形的门,这个门就是小石碑上所指的“金刚墙”。金刚墙高8米多,由23层大城砖将地宫紧密的封闭起来。金刚墙拆除后,露出一间面积为60多平方米的长方形隧道。隧道的尽头是两扇巨大的汉白玉石门,每扇门上又乳状门钉,纵横各9排共81枚。关于这座石门的开启,费了一番周折。因为石门后有一块石条将门死死顶住,从外面开启困难。发掘热暖苦思冥想,终于用“拐丁钥匙”打开了石门,并用同样的方法陆续打开了地宫内各道宫门。1958年7月发掘工作完成。至于“拐丁钥匙”是什么样的?发掘队员有事如何用所谓的“拐丁钥匙”打开地宫大门的?地宫内又有什么秘密?请大家带着这些问题,现在就让我们下去一探究竟。
  
  各位,现在我们所在的位置是定陵地宫的左配殿,定陵地宫的制度为“九重法宫”制,即模仿帝王日常所居的宫室建筑,分为前、中、后、左、右五个殿堂。这里是地宫的左配殿,各位请看,室内正中靠里侧的这个大石台叫做棺床,棺床的正中有个长方形的孔穴,那是做什么用的呢?这个小穴名叫“金井”。那有朋友可能会问了,“金井”中放的应该是金子吧?这个猜测是错误的。实际上,“金井”中放的指示黄土。地宫中的金井是整个陵寝建筑格局的基准点,位于卜选陵址时选定穴位的正下方。穴位定下之后,先要在穴位后方打样坑来勘验墓地的地质情况,勘验无误后便动工兴建地宫。地宫建成后再把这土样放在预留的“井”内,即成“金井”。“金井”上设置棺床。在棺床上设“金井”并放置玉石,叫做“金井玉葬”,这是古代最高级别的葬制,只有帝后才能享用。左配殿理论上市放置帝后棺椁的殿堂,但当打开地下宫殿时,发掘者们发现帝后的棺椁并不在这里,而且左配殿内是空的,这是怎么回事儿呢?皇帝和皇后的棺椁到底在什么地方呢?大家请随我来。
  
  各位!这是地宫的中殿,当年被打开时,里面有三座汉白玉的宝座,呈“品”字形陈列,现在为了参观方便,摆成了“三”字形。万历皇帝的宝座雕有云龙图案,两位皇后的宝座刻有翔凤图案,此外在每个宝座之前都有五个琉璃摆件,即一个香炉,一对烛台及一对花瓶称为“五供”,是专门为供奉那些死去的人而设。此外还有一个云龙大瓷缸,这就是人们所说的万年灯,也叫长明灯,当年里面装满香油,在关闭地宫大门前点燃,灯火通明,象征大明江山万世相传。不过大家想一下,没有氧气怎么能长明?所以发掘队打开地宫时,万年灯已经熄灭,缸内的油层表面也已经凝固。现在摆在这里的是复制品。
  
  各位朋友,现在我们来到了地下宫殿最精华的部分,这里是地宫的后点,在打开地宫时,人们发现帝后的棺椁都放在这里,中间最大的棺椁是万历皇帝的,左边的是孝端皇帝的棺椁,右边是孝靖皇后的棺椁。两侧还陈列这26个红漆木箱,里面放的是陪葬品,当年经过整理,共出土3000多件出土文物,其中有皇帝的各种礼冠;皇后的各种凤冠;帝后的服饰、面料及首饰、玉带、玉佩、衣料、礼器、兵器、瓷器、冥器等,件件精美。
  
  各位朋友,现在我们所在的位置是地宫的前殿石门旁,刚才我说过地宫的两扇大石门是发掘人员用“拐丁钥匙”巧妙地打开的,大家应该还记得吧?请各位看一看我们眼前的大门,这就是当年那两扇石门,定陵地宫五室共设有这样的石门7座,前、中、后三室的石门均高3.3米,宽1.7米,重约4吨。怎么样,够重吧?门后的这块长石就是当时从门后顶住大石门的顶门石,又称“自来石”,地宫中七扇大门后都有一块。为什么叫它自来石呢?原来啊,在门内地面上又一个凹槽,关门的时候,先将一扇门关严,将另一扇门关到地面石槽内侧,门内有人将自来石放入地面石槽正中,斜靠在半掩的门扇石坎上,然后门内人丛石缝中撤出,将未关上的门扇拉紧,自来石便落在两扇门后的是石坎下,将门牢牢顶住了。听到这里可能又有朋友会问了,古代的工匠吧陵墓石门设计得如此巧妙,那我们的发掘人员又是怎样在短短的几分钟内将门打开的呢?我在前面提及过,打开地宫大门的“神秘武器”叫“拐丁钥匙”,发掘人员所用的“拐丁钥匙”其实就是一根绑着铁丝的硬木条儿。工作的程序是这样的:第一步,将硬木条插入门缝中,轻轻用力将石门后的自来石从门后的槽内顶起,并保持原位置;第二步,轻推两扇石门,至缝隙可以伸进去收的程度,然后将绑在木条上的铁丝做成一个长方形的套,从自来石的上部将其套住;第三步,一边继续推开大门,一边用力将被套住的自来石往侧面拽动,墓地是让自来石的下端出凹槽,失去支点,以便打开其中一扇大门;第四步,当大门打开的程度可以钻进一个人时,钻进去吧自来石移开就可以了。现在大家知道打开地宫大门的方法了吧。当然我说的“拐丁钥匙”的形状是我们今人设计出来的,至于明朝时拐丁钥匙的形制如何、尺寸多少,因为没有相关记载,我们今天就不得而知了。此外,因此定陵的石门设计非常巧妙,门轴一端后0.4米,铺首(外侧)一端厚0.2米,重心字内侧,里重外轻,所以开关自如。让我们不得不佩服古代工匠的智慧。
  
  好!定陵地宫讲解道此结束,谢谢大家的合作。

 

 

 

 

 

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