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“天坛”中英双语导游词

[日期:04-08] 来源:网络  作者:未知 [字体: ]

“天坛”中英双语导游词


  景点讲解
  
  题一:天坛概况及祈谷坛建筑群(历史沿革;天坛布局的特点;丹陛桥:祈谷坛建筑群;七星石)
  
  题二:天坛圜丘坛建筑群(圜丘坛建筑规制及特点;圜丘坛周围设施及用途;圜丘坛附属建筑;圜丘坛祭天)
  


  讲解提示
  
  虽然原来天坛的面积很大,是故宫的近四倍,但是天坛游览线路简单,讲解应以中轴线上游客们必去的圜丘坛和祈谷坛两大建筑群的内容为主。讲解圜丘坛建筑群是应把圜丘坛的用途、建筑特点,附属建筑的特点、用途,祭天时的过程,神版的位置讲清楚。讲解祈谷坛建筑群时,重点一是放在天坛概况的内容上,应把天坛的历史、布局、用途讲明白;二是在这个基础上重点讲解祈年殿的历史、用途、建筑特点及其附属建筑。


  
  第二部分 模拟讲解词
  
  英文范例
  
  题一:天坛概况、祈谷坛建筑群


  
  Today, well go to visit the Temple of Heaven. First, I'll give you a brief introduction of it. The Temple of Heaven is situated in the southern part of Beijing. It was first built in 1420 in the Ming Dynasty. It covers an area of 273 hectares. The Temple of Heaven is not only the largest group of temple building in China, but also the largest heaven-worshipping architecture in the world.
  
  Originally the Temple of Heaven was built according to the Temple of Heaven and Earth in Nanjing, so both heaven and earth were worshiped here, then it was called Temple of Heaven and Earth at that time. In 1530, another structure, Temple of Earth was built in the northern part of Beijing and the Heaven and Earth were worshipped separately. Since only Heaven was worshipped in here, it was renamed the Temple of Heaven.
  
  During the Ming and Qing dynasties, the Temple of Heaven was the place where the emperors came to worship the God of Heaven and pray for good harvest. The emperors came here twice a year. The first time was on the 15 th day of the first lunar month. The emperor would come to the Hall of the prayer for Good Harvest and held a big ceremony to pray for a bumper harvest. The second time was on Winter Solstice, and a sacrificial ceremony would be held at the Circular Mount Altar to offer a sacrifice to the Heaven.
  
  Being a sacred place for worshipping heaven, the Temple of Heaven had been twice seriously damaged by the Anglo-French Allied Forces in 1860 and the invading troops of the eight powers in 1900.
  
  Architecturally speaking, the Temple of Heaven has two themes: the heave and the earth. The surrounding walls of the Temple of Heaven are 6 meters high with a semicircular wall to the north and square shaped wall to the south. This represents an ancient belief that the heaven was round and the earth was square. There are three main buildings in the Temple of Heaven, they are: the Hall of Prayer for Good Harvests, the Imperial Heavenly Vault and the Circular Mound Altar.

 


  
  题二:the Carcular Mound Altar
  
  (天坛圜丘坛建筑群)


  
  Ladies and Gentlemen:
  
  Welcome to the temple of Heaven. Today we are going to visit the circular mound altar. The Circular Mound Altar, which was built in 1530 and enlarged in 1740. There are two walls that encircle the altar. Both walls are painted red and surrounded by blue tiles. Each wall represents something different. The round inner wall represents heaven while the square outer wall represents earth.
  
  In the southeast corner, pine and cypress branches were burned in the green-tiled oven to welcome the gods from heaven. To bid farewell to the gods, human sacrifices were burned in the over. Next to the oven, there is a special pit called the Pit of Hair and Blood because the hair and blood of the sacrificial victims were buried here.
  
  In the southwest corner, a platform to hold a lantern pole can be seen. The pole was built in 1530 but its length changed several times. Originally, a golden dragon blue background was painted on the pole , later, the color of background was changed to red. The pole was last redecorated by Yuan Shikai, the warlord made the last sacrifice to Heaven.
  
  The Circular Mound Altar is comprised of three round white marble terraces. Each one is edged with a marble balustrade. The bottom marble terrace represents Hell, the middle terrace represents the Mortal World and the top terrace represents Heaven.
  
  And a kind of ancient yardstick was used to measure the length in “Zhang” (one “Zhang” is a little less than 3.5 meters), the Upper terrace is 9 “Zhang”(30 meters) in diameter, the middle terrace is 15 “Zhang”(50 meters) in diameter and the bottom terrace 21 “Zhang”(70 meters) in diameter, and the numbers 1x9=9;3x5=15;3x7=21, include all the so called “Heavenly numbers” 1,3,5,7,9;and the total number of the three terraces is 45, the result of 9x5,which is in complete conformity with “the Supreme number of nine and five” in the “Book of Changes”。 The arrangement of putting number nine and five together was used exclusively in China by the ancient emperors. That's why it was used here.
  
  In the center of the upper terrace is the Heaven's Heart Stone which is surrounded by concentrically arranged flag-stones. There are 9 stones in the first circle, 18 in the second, 27 in the third. It continues in this manner up to the ninth circle, which has 81 stones. The middle and bottom terraces also have 9 circles each. The total number of the marble flagstones on the surface is 3,402, and each terrace has four entrances and a flight of nine steps leading down in every direction. The total number of the carved balustrades on these terraces is 360, which is also the multiple of 9. It stands for the 360 degrees of circumference of heaven.
  
  During each ceremony, the shrine of god was placed on the central Supreme Stone, which symbolized that god lived above the “nine heavens”。 The highest terrace produces a curious acoustic effect. If you stand in the center of the upper terrace and speak, you will hear your voice echo back because the balustrades send the sound back to the center.
  
  North of the Circular Mound Altar is the Imperial Vault of Heaven, which was originally built in 1530 and rebuilt 1752. Its structure is made from wood and brick with a blue tiled roof that is topped with a gilded ball. It is 19.5 meters high and 15.6meters in diameter. From a distance, the Imperial Vault of Heaven looks like a small version of the Hall of Prayer for Good Harvest.
  
  As you can see, the building does not have any horizontal beams as support. The entire building is supported by 8 pillars and a span-work of bars, laths and brackets, which is in complete conformity with the principles of dynamics. The decorative painted appear fresh because they were retouched in 1974.
  
  In the center of the Imperial vault of Heaven stands the shrine where the tablet of God of Heaven was placed. There are four stone platforms one each side where the tablets of the emperor's eight ancestors were kept. During each winter solstice, these tablets were placed in a small pavilion-like cage and removed to the Circular Mound for the Worshipping Heaven ceremony. After the ceremony, the tablets were returned to the stone platforms.
  
  Two chambers located at the front of the Imperial Vault of Heave contained different tablets used for worship. The left chamber contained tablets of the gods of basic elements including gold, wood, water, fire and earth. The right chamber contained tablets of gods of natural phenomena including wind, rain, thunder, lightning and so on.
  
  The Imperial Vault of Heaven is better know for the wall that surrounds it. This wall is called “Echo Wall” or “The Whispering Wall”。  It is 3.72meters high, 90centimeters thick and 65.1 meters in diameter. The eaves of the wall and the hermetically laid bricks make wireless communication possible between two people who speak in normal voices. To be the most effective, a couple of conditions must exist: First, the courtyard cannot be too noisy. Second, both people must face north. It is better to stand by the wall at the back of the two side chambers. The entrance of the courtyard prevents the voices from being heard by others.
  
  How to Worship the God of Heaven
  
  Worship of the God of Heaven followed a fixed pattern. First, the officials responsible for the ceremony had to write a program, which was presented to the Emperor in the Hall of Supreme Harmony in the Forbidden City for approval. After the program was approved, the emperor rehearsed it in the Hall of Complete Harmony.
  
  The day before the ceremony, the emperor presented incense in the Imperial Vault of Heaven. Then, he went to the Circular Mound Altar to inspect the tablets. Also, the emperor inspected sacrificial articles in the storehouse of the gods. On the day of the ceremony, the emperor left the Hall of Abstinence two hours before sunrise to the chiming of the bell. Music and drums replaced the Altar. This is how the ceremony began. The entire ritual consisted of nine steps.
  
  1.Welcoming the deities where something special was burnt to usher in the God of Heaven.
  
  2.Offering jade and silk items in boxes.
  
  3.Presenting sacrificial animals.
  
  4.First presenting of offerings.
  
  5.Second presenting of offerings.
  
  6.Final presenting offerings.
  
  7.Removal of sacrificial offerings.
  
  8.Seeing the deities off: stuff of all offerings.
  
  9.The emperor views burning off all offerings.
  
  Different music accompanied each procedure, which was followed by the kowtow of the emperor and his ministers. When the smell of the burnt offerings filled the air of the Circular Mound Altar, the ceremony was over.
  

 


  中文范例
  
  题一:天坛概况及祈谷坛建筑群


  
  各位团友大家好!
  
  今天我们要参观游览的景点是天坛。天坛位于北京正阳门东南侧。天坛是世界上现存规模最大、形制最完备的古代皇家祭祀建筑群,是明清两朝皇帝祭天、祈谷的地方。1998年12月列入《世界遗产名录》。
  
  天坛始建于明朝永乐初年,于1420年建成完工。明朝永乐年间,天坛初建之时,称天地坛,不仅祭天而且祭地。一百余年间,明朝有9位皇帝在天地坛合祀天地。至明嘉靖九年(1530),明世宗朱厚熜下诏将天地合祭改为天地分祭,在南郊建圜丘,名为天坛;在北郊建方泽坛,名为地坛;有在东郊建日坛以祭日;在西郊建夕月坛以祭月。
  
  清乾隆皇帝时又对天坛警醒了大规模的修建:1742年改建大斋宫;1747年用城砖包砌天坛内外坛墙;1749年扩建圜丘,兵在乾隆十六年(1751)将祈谷坛的大亨殿改为祈年殿,将三层殿顶琉璃瓦改为蓝色,象征天。次年又改建皇穹宇。我们现在看到的七年单是光绪年间重建后的风貌。1911年清帝溥仪退位后,祭天制度废止,清廷撤走其配祀祖先的牌位,将天坛交由国民政府内务部管理。1915年12月23日袁世凯又到天坛举行了一次祭天大典。1918年新年元旦天坛正式对外开放。1937年日军进驻天坛。1939年日军占据神乐署,设立研究病理和细菌的实验室。1945年北平市接受的天坛已经破败不堪。解放前夕,守备北京的国民党军队在天坛内修筑工事、建弹药库,砍伐大量树木。为建简易机场扒掉南部坛墙,炸毁有400多年历史的明代石牌坊,天坛面目全非。建国后。在国家政府和北京市政府的秀山之下,天坛才重现昔日辉煌面貌。
  
  天坛全园占地约273公顷,其中林地占地163公顷,草坪占地10余公顷,100年以上的古柏有3600多株,全园之北覆盖率达到89%。天坛的面积是紫禁城面积的4倍。天坛平面布局呈“回”字形,北圆南方,象征天圆地方。明清两朝共有22位皇帝在这里举行过几天大典654次。最后在这里几天的是袁世凯。
  
  天坛是通称,它实际上主要由两个坛组成。南部为圜丘坛建筑群,北部为祈谷坛建筑群。两坛各成体系,他们之间由海墁大道相连。天坛又有内坛和外坛之分,其间分布许多附属建筑,可以用“一、三、五、七、九”这样一组数字将天坛的主要建筑概括起来。
  
  “一”:一天中轴线。在这条中轴线上,分布着天坛里最主要的建筑。自南向北分别得昭亨门-圜丘坛-皇穹宇-成贞门-丹陛桥-南砖门-祈年门-祈年殿-皇乾殿-北天门。
  
  “三”:三道坛墙,分别为外坛墙、内坛墙和分隔圜丘坛与祈谷坛之间的东西向坛墙。
  
  “五”:指五组主要建筑,分为圜丘坛建筑群、祈谷坛建筑群、斋宫建筑群、神乐署和牺牲所建筑群。
  
  “七”:是祈谷坛东侧的七星石。
  
  “九”:指原天坛的九座坛门。外坛墙2座,西侧北面祈谷坛门及南面的圜丘坛门。圜丘坛周围4座,分别为泰元门、昭亨门、广利门、成贞门。祈谷坛东、西、北3座,分别为东天门、西天门、北天门。
  
  大家看,我们眼前的这条平坦,宽阔的大道就是海墁大道,也叫丹陛桥。它是连接天坛南北两大建筑群的通道,全长108丈。360米,宽约30米,分为三路,中间宽阔的路面为“神道”,就连皇帝也不能走;东侧的窄路为“御路”,供皇帝专用;西侧为“王道”,为随同皇帝祭祀来的文武大臣们而设。整个路面底部南向北逐渐升高,最北端高出最南端2米,而路面看起来很平坦,这种设计方法的妙处是象征皇帝步步升高,而又没有真的让皇帝走斜坡而受累,同时也使天坛的总体显得更加完美。说到这里,有朋友要问了,这明明是一条宽阔的大路,为什么叫“桥”呢?这有两个说法:一是大道南低北高,步步上升,意思是与天相接,所以称桥;二是,在前面的确有一条券洞式的东西通道,如同桥洞,所以叫桥。丹陛桥又被称为“鬼门关”。为什么呢?因为在外滩的西南侧有一个专门为祭祀而死羊动物的机构,叫“牺牲所”,在丹陛桥东侧又有一个专门为祭祀而宰杀动物的机构,叫“宰牲亭”,在祭祀前要把西侧牺牲所得动物赶到东侧宰杀亭内宰杀,做成贡品。但最初在西向东没有路,又不能让那些祭祀用的牛羊在丹陛桥上走,玷污了神路,于是就在下面开了个洞,让牲畜从这里通过,因为动物过了桥洞必死无疑,再无生还的可能,所以这里又叫“鬼门关”。丹陛桥确实是桥,而且是一座立交桥,按年代计算恐怕称得上古都北京第一座立交桥了。
  
  我们现在所在的位置时丹陛桥的北端东侧,这有一个坐东朝西的方形转台,周围有汉白玉石栏板,面积大约有300多平方米,叫“具服台”。在举行祭祀大典时,在此临时搭起帐篷,人称“小金殿”,皇帝在大典前在这里换衣服,脱去黄色龙袍,换上蓝色的祭服,表示对皇天上帝的尊敬。祈谷典礼结束后,再来这里更衣,返回紫禁城。
  
  在天坛中轴线北端,是祈谷坛,坛分三层,圆形。八出陛,南北各三出陛,东西各一出陛,三层坛面围以汉白玉石栏板,坛上为祈年殿。祈年殿高九丈七尺九寸九分,殿顶为圆形三重檐攒尖顶,顶部为鎏金宝顶,殿内的天花为龙凤藻井。
  
  祈年殿以28根落地柱环绕支撑,形成内中外三环柱网。内圈为4根龙井柱,其东南柱代表春季,南方柱间代表夏季,西方柱间为秋季,北方柱间为冬季。中圈12根金柱分隔的12个位置,代表一年的12个月。12根金柱加上柱间隔成德12个空间,代表一年的24个节气。外圈12根檐柱分隔的12个空间,代表一天的12个时辰。
  
  祈年殿内中间北侧有一方形高台,是安放皇天上帝神版的地方,东西两侧较低的方形石台,是安放清代列祖列宗神牌的地方。
  
  在祈谷坛的北侧,是监狱永乐十八年的天地坛的天库,用于存放祭祀天地的神牌,明嘉靖二十四年改名为皇乾殿。在祈谷坛东门外有一条连檐通脊的曲廊,叫“长廊”,共有72间。又叫七十二连房。长廊将祈年殿、神库连在一起,是祭祀时往祭坛上运送祭品的通道。
  
  在祈谷坛长廊的东南方,这一景观被称为七星石,是明嘉靖年间经人工雕凿后放在这里的。可能有细心的团友要问七星石为什么有八块呢?其实七星石代表东岳泰山七峰,东北方位的小青石是康熙皇帝派人考察泰山,认定泰山发脉于东北长白山,后在乾隆年间曾置的。
  
  好!天坛祈谷坛建筑群的讲解到此结束,现在请各位自由参观拍照,15分钟后我们在北天门集合。谢谢!
  

 


  题二:天坛圜丘坛建筑群
  
  各位!现在我们来到了圜丘坛景区前,其实呀,它才是真正的“天坛”,因为这里才是明清两代皇帝在冬至举行祭天大典的地方。圜丘坛建于明嘉靖年间,即公元1530年,位于天坛的南部。周围有四门,东为泰元门,难为昭亨门,西为广利门,北为成贞门。这四门的名称出自《易经*乾卦》中的卦辞“元亨利贞”,咱们的是天的本质,也称为天的“四德”。
  
  圜丘坛外面有两道谴墙。四个正方位都设有棂星门。内墙为圆形,直径102米,外墙方形,边长168米。我们现在所在的位置就在外墙外的神路东侧,在我们面前的这个由汉白玉石栏板围起来的方形砖台叫“具服台”。冬至日祭天大典前,这里会临时搭起帐篷,供皇帝在此盥洗和更换祭天礼服。整个天坛有两座具服台,另一座在祈谷坛前。
  
  好,请大家随我从棂星门进入圜丘坛外围墙。这是圜丘坛内外壝墙之间的一个空间。我先给大家介绍一下这一院落中的陈设。请看西南边,那里有一根很高的木杆,它叫望灯杆,嘉靖九年初建是只有1座,明崇祯皇帝时增加到了3座。1914年袁世凯祭天是拆掉两根,所以现在只剩下我们跟前的这一根了。望灯杆是祭天的时候挂灯笼用的。各位也许要问:祭天为什么要挂灯笼呀?这是因为当年祭天的时候不是在白天,二是在日出前七刻,即凌晨四点一刻到四点三十分。您想想,这个时候在冬至时可是漆黑一片啊。所以,祭天时皇帝需要挂灯笼照亮。不过,皇帝照亮,非同一般,那必须要“吉星高照”。那么现在请大家猜一猜这座灯杆有多高?现在我来宣布正确答案:灯杆的高度是九丈,约合今天的28米多。不仅灯杆不一般,那灯笼也不一般。举行祭天大典时望灯杆上吊挂直径1.3米、高2.15米大灯笼,里面方有五支巨大的蟠龙通宵宝蜡,长又1.3米,直径30厘米,可连续燃烧12个小时,既不用剪蜡花,也不流蜡油,是当年皇帝祭天的专用宝蜡。除了挂灯笼照明外,这根望天杆还是祭天大典位置的标志,也是祭天仪式开始和结束的时间标志。
  
  请大家再转向外墙的东南方,这里还有几组建筑。这个圆形的用绿色琉璃砖砌的建筑物,叫燔柴炉,高9尺。祭天大典开始时,在这里焚烧弄干净的牛犊以通达天神,祭天大典结束后,还要在这里焚烧祝版及祭品。
  
  在燔柴炉东侧,还有一个圆形的绿琉璃砖的建筑物,大家看看这个像不像是一个埋在地下的巨大盘子。这个叫痂坎,用来埋牛尾、牛毛、牛血,来比喻不忘祭地的意思。
  
  在痂坎旁,从西南向东北方向排列着的这8个炉子是铁镣炉,它们的主要用途是焚烧大典后从配位上撤下的清代前8为皇帝的祭品。在进行大典的时候炉内然手松杆、松柏,同时还烧些檀香木,一时间火光冲天,香烟缭绕,不但增加了神秘庄严地气氛,而且在寒冷的冬夜给皇帝带来了一丝暖意。圜丘坛共有这样的镣炉12座,除了这8座以外,其余4座分别放在圜丘坛内围墙东、西棂星门外。
  
  现在,让我们赶快进入内墙去看看圜丘坛吧。圜丘坛是一座三层的圆形石台。为什么要将祭天台设计成圆形呢?因为古代人们认为天就是圆的,地就是放的,既然是祭天台,自燃要设计成圆形了。
  
  圜丘坛通高5.7米,完全用艾叶青石铺成。它的最大的特点是数字“九”无处不在,充满了神秘色彩。现在我们一起来找找那些神秘的“九”,看他们藏在何处。大家请随我手指所指来看。圜丘坛三层台面的直径分别是:下层坛面直径21丈,暗含“三七”,中层直径15丈,为“三五”,顶层“九”丈,为“一九”,合起来“一、三、五、七、九”,阳数都齐了,如果把三层直径加起来,便是四十五,五九四十五,正好象征了皇帝的“九五”之尊,巧夺天工吧。
  
  大家可以看到,圜丘坛冬、南、西、北、各开一口,叫做四出陛,每个登坛口都有上、中、下三组台阶。耳听为虚,眼见为实,在这儿咱们不妨来个脚踏为实,请大家一边登上这一组台阶,一边数数这组台阶有多少级。一、二、三、四、五、六、七、八、九,正好九级。第二层呢,也是九级,第三层也是如此,这样,共有12组“九”,对吧?
  
  现在我们已经到了圜丘坛的顶端,大家请看坛面中心,这块圆形石块叫天心石,又叫“亿兆景从石”,为何叫天心石呢?据说这块石头是宇宙的中心,是皇帝与天上诸神们相互交流的“天界”,故心有灵犀者,便可在此与“神”交流一番。那为什么又叫“亿兆景从石”呢?“亿兆”是多的意思,“景从”是像影子一样随从,所以所白了“亿兆景从石”就是“一呼百应石”。这是一组奇妙的声学现象,即当你站在圆心石上轻声说话时,声音不仅宏大,而且有共鸣及回音。那么,这是什么原因造成的现象呢?请看,由于坛面十分光洁平整,声波传到周围的石栏杆后能迅速地被反射回来,据声学专家测验,从发生到声波再回到圆心石的时间仅为0.07秒,说话者根本无法分清它是原音还是回音,所以又一会白影的感觉。当皇帝站在天心石上说话的时候,感到不仅有神助--声音洪亮,又有人助--一呼百应,身为人君者便把一呼百应的回升当成是天下万民对自己的无限忠心及一致响应。以前之后皇帝才能站在这里说话,现在我们也可以登上天心石许下一个美好的愿望。
  
  我们再来看看天心石周围,围绕天心石共环状铺设了9圈扇形石板,大家数数看,第一圈为9块,第二圈为9的倍数18块,其余类推,直到第九圈,有81块。第二层也是9圈扇形石,从第十圈开始到第18圈。第三层从19圈开始到第27圈,每圈都是九的倍数。这样,上、中、下三层坛面共铺石板3402块,即378个“九”。
  
  有朋友肯定会问了,圜丘坛为什么会有这么多的“九”呢?里面肯定有什么说法吧?的确是如此。我问问大家,自然界最大的东西是什么?对了,是填。自然数理最大的数字是什么?是“九”。根据阴阳学说,在天地间,天为阳,地为阴;在数字中奇数为阳,偶数为阴;所以“九”与“天”都属极阳,九位阳数中的最大数,用9的倍数递增,使它最大化,来象征天的崇高和神圣。所以用“九”来筑祭天台便是天经地义的事了。
  
  那么明清两代的皇帝又是如何举行祭天大典的呢?
  
  在每年冬至祭天大典前,相关礼仪人员要提前在圜丘坛上摆好神位和其他陈设。以清代为例,清代举行祭天大典时,在圜丘坛上设有正为、配位、从位共七组帐篷。正为就位于天心石稍北,南向,是祭祀皇天上帝的圆形帐篷。配位排列在正为帐篷前的东西两侧,共两组,是清代前八位已故皇帝的帐篷,为长方形。东侧从北向南分别为努尔哈赤。顺治帝福临、雍正帝胤禛和嘉庆帝颙琰;西侧从北向南分别为皇太极、康熙帝玄烨、乾隆帝弘历和道光帝旻宁。从位帐篷共四组,都为长方形,位于圜丘坛中层东西两侧,祭祀的分别是大明神、北斗星、二十八星宿、周天星辰及夜明神、风云雷雨各神。在圜丘坛中层台面正南台阶前事皇帝祭祀时的拜位。此外,在最上层天心石处还设有祝版案,上面放的是裱有祭文的木质版。
  
  皇帝在冬至日祭天大典前要在天坛斋宫内斋戒三天,(雍正后在紫禁城斋戒两天,最后一天来天坛斋宫)在最后一天腰刀圜丘坛上检查牌位耳环各种陈设。到了冬至这天凌晨,太常寺卿率领钦天监官员奏报时辰,皇帝起驾,斋宫钟楼鸣钟,皇帝先到圜丘坛前的具服台更换祭天的天青色礼服,盥洗,等候礼部官员将供奉在皇穹宇中的神牌移送到圜丘坛相应的坛位上。然后到日出前七刻,大约是凌晨4点15分到四点30分,祭天大典,皇帝登坛,到达中层南侧的拜位。
  
  清朝整个祭天大典共分九项仪程:
  
  第一步叫燔柴迎帝神,即在燔柴炉上焚烧洗剥干净的牛犊,以通达天神;
  
  第二步是奠玉帛,即皇帝想皇天上帝神位进献苍壁和玉帛;
  
  第三步是进俎,即皇帝将热羹浇在神位前的祭品上。
  
  第四步是初献礼,皇帝向正位、配位第一次献酒,同时,司祝官读祭祀的祝文。
  
  第五步,亚献礼,即皇帝向正位、配位第二次献酒。
  
  第六步,终献礼,即皇帝第三次献酒。
  
  第七步,撤馔,即把祭品撤下去。
  
  第八步,送帝神。
  
  第九步,往燎。皇帝到燔柴炉西侧往燎位行往燎礼,观看焚烧供品,之后到具服台更衣后回宫。
  
  此外,在祭天大典中,与祭天九部曲相配的中和韶乐、乐舞也分为九个乐章。
  
  大家看,清代帝王祭天大典还真是够繁琐复杂的吧?
  
  各位朋友,现在来考虑一个问题:皇帝回宫,那么皇天上帝的牌位何去何从?当然,也要回宫,不过它可不回人间的宫殿,而是人间的天宫,在哪里呢?就是圜丘坛背面的那座建筑--皇穹宇,好!我们现在便去天宫拜访一下皇天上帝。
  
  好,现在我们来到了皇穹宇。这里是在祭天大典后存放皇天上帝及其他诸神牌位的地方,即皇天上帝和诸神的寝宫。除大典外,其余时间,众神都在这里休息。皇穹宇建于嘉靖九年,公元1530年,整组建筑由一堵圆形的墙所环绕,院内有三座建筑,正中北侧是存放皇天上帝和清代前八位皇帝牌位的正殿--皇穹宇,东侧配殿供有大明、星辰的神牌;西侧配殿供奉夜明、风雨雷云神牌。
  
  正殿皇穹宇像一把巨大的雨伞,其殿顶呈圆形,基座为圆形,院落的围墙也是圆形,这些“圆”都是敬天礼神的象征,但也正是这些“圆”及建筑,早就了不可思议的奇迹,即皇穹宇院内的三大声学现象。首先,我们来看一看这院落的圆形围墙,它就是文明中外的建筑--回音壁。那么回音壁有何神奇之处呢?其现象是这样的:如果两人站在两座配殿后的围墙下,均面部朝北对墙小声说话,都能非常清晰地听到对方所讲的话。这是为什么呢?因为呀,整个围墙是圆形的,有磨砖对缝,墙面十分光滑坚硬,再加上围墙顶部该有檐瓦,声音不宜散失,阅视声波便沿着圆墙连续反射而产生回音。各位可以试一试,我们五分钟后到皇穹宇前集合。
  
  下面请各位看看第二个有趣的现象。请看皇穹宇大殿正南丹陛前的甬路,从北向南数有三块石头,如果站在第一块石头上拍手,会听到一次回音;如果站在第二块石头上拍手,可以听到两次回声;如果站在第三块石头上拍手,可以听到三次回声,故称此石韦三音石。其实据声学专家测量,如果这里足够安静,在三音石上拍手,其回声是无限次的,只是我们人类智能听到三声。为什么会在这里听到的回音呢?其实原因很简单,如果你站在三音石上环顾一下四周,你会发现,噢!原来我站在了整座院落的中心,那里是回声产生的最佳位置。
  
  好!下面请各位感受一下三音石的妙趣,5分钟后我们在门口集合。

 

 

 

 

 

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