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“故宫”中英双语导游词(完整版)

[日期:04-07] 来源:网络  作者:未知 [字体: ]

“故宫”中英双语导游词(完整版)



  
  景点讲解题
  
  题一:午门前讲解故宫(历史沿革中清明两朝概况;紫禁城名称的由来;紫禁城的布局;午门及午门广场)
  
  题二:故宫前朝(太和门及太和门广场;太和殿及太和殿广场;中和殿、保和殿)
  
  题三:故宫后廷(乾清门及乾清门广场;乾清宫;交泰殿;坤宁宫;御花园;神武门)
  
  题四:故宫后廷外东路(宁寿全宫;珍宝馆;宁寿全宫中其他建筑;千叟宴;珍妃井)
  
  题五:故宫后廷内西路主要建筑 御花园(养心殿;储秀宫;御花园)
  
  讲解提示:
  
  故宫是一株宏大的宫殿建筑群,是导游讲解的难点、重点。讲解过程注意按景点顺序讲解,每处景点要讲解清楚其历史沿革、建筑特点、用途和相关的历史文化知识。
  
  


  
  中文范例
  
  题一:午门前讲故宫


  
  各位团友大家好,今天我们将参观故宫博物馆,现在我们所在的位置时故宫的午门前,在进入故宫之前,我先就故宫的情况向大家作个简单介绍。
  
  故宫,又称紫禁城,原为明清两代的皇宫。建于1406-1420年,距今已有580多年的历史了。它是我国现存规模最大、保存最完整的古代皇宫建筑群,1987年被联合国教科文组织列入《世界遗产名录》。
  
  紫禁城这一名称是怎样得来的呢?我国古代天文学家把天上的主要恒星分为三恒、四象和二十八星宿。三恒是太微恒、紫微恒河天市恒。其中紫微恒居中,是天帝居住的地方,称为“紫宫”。封建帝王自称是天帝的儿子,所以他们也把自己居住的皇宫象征为人间的紫宫。而且皇帝居住的地方戒备森严,不许庶民百姓接近,是绝对的禁地,又称为禁宫,所以故宫又被叫做紫禁城。
  
  故宫为北京的城中之城,坐落在北京的中轴线上,背靠景山,面南朝阳。故宫南北长961米,东西宽753米,由无数房屋、高大的城墙和宽阔的护城河组成。占地面积72万平方米,建筑面积15万平方米,相当于两个标准的足球场那么大。共有宫殿房屋8704间(1973年统计),这上千座房屋由10米高的城墙和52米宽的护城河护卫着。
  
  故宫始建于永乐四年(1406)。为营建这座宏伟的建筑群,明成祖朱棣派遣大臣到全国各地采备上好的建筑材料,明代采用上好的楠木,大都取自云、贵、川及两广地区;金砖产自苏州;汉白玉取于北京的房山。在建造过程中,动用工匠23万,民夫百万人。经过十四年的建造,紫禁城终于于永乐十八年(1420年)竣工。永乐十九年元旦,朱棣迁都北京。从此故宫开始成为明清两朝皇帝的生活之所。明代从成祖朱棣到思宗朱由检,共有14位皇帝在此生活起居、治理国家。清代从清世祖福临到逊帝溥仪,共有10位皇帝在紫禁城生活起居和治理国家。
  
  在这五百多年的时间里,紫禁城可谓是饱经风雨。明朝,在紫禁城建成后,人祸天灾就不断发生。永乐十九年(1421)四月,紫禁城启用不到百日,前朝三大殿就被一场大火烧毁。此后前朝三大殿、乾清宫、坤宁宫、奉天门、午门等处。先后在正德、嘉庆、万历各朝屡遭火毁。到崇祯年间又遇到战火,建筑、文物都遭到很大程度的破坏。
  
  清朝证券入住紫禁城以后,经数代皇帝的经营,紫禁城逐步恢复了元气。在此期间,清朝统治者在重建已毁宫殿建筑的基础上,又对部分区域进行了较大规模的改造,如文渊阁、南三所、西五所、宁寿全宫、斋宫、毓庆宫等。清廷还特别重视防火,才去了许多防火措施。首先。是对紫禁城所有重要建筑进行防火结构的改造,增设防火墙、加厚墙体、封护房檐等。其次、建立火班并且定时进行演练以防不测。第三十配备消防器材,增加太平缸、激桶、水桶,以备不时之需。这些措施有效地防止了火灾的发生,使紫禁城再现辉煌。但是到了清末时期,由于国力的衰弱,清政府无心管理,故宫再次走上下坡路。
  
  清宣统三年(1911年),末代皇帝溥仪退位。根据民国政府与清廷签订的《清室优先条例》,清廷人员仍可居住在紫禁城的内廷部分。民国二年(1913)十月十日,袁世凯在紫禁城太和殿内举行了大总统就职典礼。他将殿内的皇帝宝座撤掉,换成西施的靠背椅,并去掉了前朝所有匾额上的满文。1924年11月,冯玉祥发动“北京政变”,修改了《清室优待条例》,要求溥仪立即迁出故宫,不然就要在景山上向故宫开炮,溥仪被迫搬出故宫。清廷退出紫禁城后,1924年11月7日中华民国临时政府宣布成立“清室善后委员会”,负责清查清廷的财产,筹备成立博物馆事宜。经过酝酿确定博物馆的名称为“故宫博物院”,并于1925年的10月10日举行故宫博物院成立典礼,紫禁城从此正式队社会开放。解放50余年来,政府对故宫博物院的维护、保养、研究投下巨资,使紫禁城再次焕发青春。


  
  下面向大家介绍下故宫的建筑布局。
  
  故宫的建筑布局主要分为前朝和后廷两大部分。
  
  前朝位于紫禁城中轴线南部。以太和、中和、保和三大殿为主体,坐落在一沓巨大的“土”字形须弥座上。因为这里是举行大朝会、体现国威帝尊的地方,所以这里的宫殿特别高大辉煌。前朝两翼东侧为文华殿建筑群,西侧为武英殿建筑群。
  
  后廷部分位于中轴线北部,是以乾清宫、交泰殿、坤宁宫为中心,东西六宫、宁寿全宫(东)、慈宁宫为两翼的建筑群。它是帝后生活起居、处理日常政务的地方,所以也称为“后寝”。
  
  紫禁城共有四道门,四个方向的正方位各开一门,南为午门,北为神武门,东为东华门,西为西华门。我们现在所在的这个午门,就是紫禁城的正门。因为在古代“午”代表正中、正南。午门城台正中建筑为重檐庑殿顶城楼,九五开间,代表皇帝的九五之尊。城台上部由门口、钟鼓楼和雁翅楼组成。由于午门为紫禁城的南门,南为朱雀,所以整个建筑是红墙黄瓦。又因为整个城台为“凹”字形就像展翅飞翔的鸟,所以又叫“五凤楼”。午门城台开有五个门,正门三间,东西两侧分别开左掖门和右掖门,东西向。南面正门三间,北面五间,这种规制叫“明三暗五”。另外,大家注意五个门的前后不同。门洞南面为方形,背面为圆形,电表了天圆地方。午门正门是专供皇帝出入的。但是在清代,经殿试进士及第而考中三鼎甲者,在发黄榜的那天可以从正门出宫一次,以示奖励,皇后在皇帝大婚时可以从正门进宫,一生仅此一次。在殿试的时候,贡士按名次单数走左掖门,双数走右掖门。此外,皇帝在太和殿举行大朝礼时,三品以上文武百官走左门,宗室王公走右门,三品以下官员按文东武西的制度从左右掖门进出。外国使节从西掖门进出。
  
  明清两朝在午门前举行的活动分两类。一类是逢年过节与官民同乐的活动;另一类是一些正式的典礼,其中最主要的有两个:一个是颁朔礼,每年的阴历十月初一,皇帝要在这里举行一个大的仪式,即向全国颁布次年的历书。这部历书在明代和清代早期是由一个机构来编写出来的,这个机构叫钦天监。钦天监将编号的历书进献皇上,以皇上的名义在此举行一个仪式,然后把历书颁布全国。
  
  另一个重要的活动室献俘典。在明代比较少清代比较多,尤其是康、雍、乾这几代,国内地方势力的平叛,还有对外的作战非常多,而且经常取胜,凡是获胜了都要在此举行隆重的献俘礼。仪式的内容就是将战俘押解到午门城楼下,城楼上下都会站有很多军士。皇帝会在官员的邀请下登楼,坐于楼的正中位置,然后军士把战俘押解过来,双手反绑,向皇帝跪拜,然后听从皇帝的发落。
  
  除午门外,午门广场周边共设五个门,正南为端门,午门两观城台南侧,东为阙左门,西为阙右门。这两门之南为朝房各42间,东朝房(吏、户、礼科)南侧为太庙右门,西朝房(兵、刑、工科)南侧为社稷坛左门。阙左门、阙右门之北各有东西向朝房三间,原为王公朝房,现为故宫售票处。
  
  一提起午门,大家可能马上想起“推出午门斩首示众”这句话。其实午门前并未斩过人。这里是明朝实施“廷杖”的地方。廷杖就是对在朝廷上违逆了皇帝意志的大臣用棍子打的刑罚,处罚地点在午门外御路西墀之下。明朝成化年以前,廷杖只是象征性的,并非真打。后来逐渐演变成真打,不是发生伤人致死的事件,其中有两次廷杖轰动朝野。一次是正德十四年(1591),正德皇帝朱厚照腰刀江南选美,群臣阻谏,正德皇帝不但不听,还将劝谏大臣处以廷杖之刑,一次被打158人。死15人;另一次是明嘉靖三年(1524),因“大礼仪”事件,廷杖大臣134,死17人。
  


  题二:故宫前朝
  
  各位朋友,穿过午门,现在我们已经进入故宫。故宫中这第一进院落就是太和门广场。首先我们看到是内金水河,它子西向东婉言流过太和门广场,上边有五座汉白玉石桥,就是内金水桥,它们象征五德,即仁、义、礼、智、信,是皇帝集美好的品质为一身的意思。金水桥下市内金水河,内金水河从紫禁城西北角筒子河涵道引入紫禁城,沿紫禁城内西侧南流,至武英殿东向,经武英殿门前,再东经涵道至太和门前。又经涵道东出至文渊阁前水池,从文渊阁东出经三座门前石桥,最后流入无门东侧筒子河,全长2100米。内金水河的作用不仅是故宫中排水的主要通道,也是宫中营造用水和灭火的主要水源,同时还起到了分隔空间、点缀景观的作用,使太和门广场在雄浑中不失秀美。
  
  跨过金水桥,这片广场曾经是明代皇帝玉门听政时百官待驾的地方。何谓“御门听政”呢?这“御门”即指太和门,即前朝的正门,初建于明永乐年间,当时叫奉天门,明嘉靖年间改称皇极门,清顺治年后改称太和门。“听政”是指听取政事。明永乐皇帝朱棣迁都北京不到百日,三大殿被大火烧毁,朱棣曾在此御门听政,处理国家朝政。清朝入关后,清世祖福临的登基典礼、加封多尔衮为叔父摄政王、封吴三桂为平西王等活动都是在太和门举行的。
  
  太和门东庑中间的门叫协和门,西庑中间的门叫熙和门。太和门、协和门、熙和门加上前朝三大殿的太和殿、中和殿、保和殿称为“六合”。在太和门两旁还有两道门,分别为昭德门和贞度门。
  
  过了太和门我们就来到了故宫中最重要的院落--太和殿及其广场。太和殿广场几本呈正方形,整个院落平坦宽阔,气势非凡。中间御路以青石,两侧青砖墁地。北有太和殿,南为太和殿,东为体仁阁,西为弘义阁,面积约3万平方米,是整座紫禁城面积的1/24。整个广场可容纳近7万人。在每年的元旦、冬至以及皇帝登基、大婚、万寿这些重大活动的时候,都要在太和殿以及太和殿广场举行隆重的大朝礼。
  
  大家请看,远处正前方是一片汉白玉雕砌的三层高台基,呈“土”字形,俗称“三台”。台基高8.13米,台边缘高7.12米,三层台基间,分列着18尊鼎式香炉。在每一层基座的边缘都伸出很多小龙头,那些小龙的名字叫“螭”,是传说中一种没有角的龙,这些小龙头实际上是大殿的排水系统。如果仔细看会发现每个龙头的嘴里都有一个小孔,即喷水孔,三层基座之上共设小龙头1142个,每当下大雨的时候,雨水便从1142个龙头嘴里的小孔内排出,非常壮观。为管中一景,被称为“千龙吐水”。三重台基承托着雄伟的三大殿,这就是故宫的中心建筑--太和殿、中和殿、保和殿。其中太和殿位于“土”字形须弥座的南部,各位可以先在这里留个影,然后我们就去参观太和殿。
  
  好!现在我们面前这座高台上的宏伟建筑就是太和殿,也就是民间所说的“金銮宝殿”。太和殿是紫禁城的正殿,被视为黄泉的象征。太和殿始建于明永乐年间,原名奉天殿,嘉靖年间重建后改称皇极殿。清初顺治年间改称太和殿,康熙年间又两次大规模改造,才有今天我们看到的太和殿的规模。“太和”二字出自《周易*乾*                                      彖辞传》中的“乾道变化,各证性命,保合大和乃利贞。”“太”即大,“和”即和谐。意思是在天道的主宰夏,阴阳和合,太和元气常运不息,万物和谐共存。太和殿面阔11间,进深5间,殿高35.05米,面积约2377平方米。它是紫禁城乃至全国现存的最高、最大、最尊贵的宫殿,也是现存的中国宫殿建筑中规模最大的一座。太和殿在清明两代是举行大朝礼的地方。每逢元旦、冬至、万寿,即皇帝生日这三大节及皇帝登基、大婚、命将出征、金殿传胪等重大活动都要在他喝点举行隆重的庆典。此外,冬至圜丘坛大忌、孟春圜丘坛常雩礼、孟春祁谷坛前一日,皇帝也都要在太和殿阅视祭祀祝版。
  
  大家请抬头看太和殿的屋顶,太和殿屋顶是采用古建筑中等级最高的重檐庑殿顶。屋顶正脊上两头的这两大琉璃构件叫大吻,吻上的龙形有镇火的意思。除了装饰性,它的使用功能是密合殿顶正脊和垂脊的交会处,以防风雨侵蚀。这两个大吻高3.4米,宽2.68米,重4.3吨,由13块琉璃构件组成,是现存古建中最大的吻。太和殿殿顶四面坡的筒子瓦上镶有琉璃帽钉两排,垂脊上还有10个垂脊兽,分别是龙、凤、狮、海马、天马、押鱼、狻猊、獬豸、斗牛、行什,脊兽钱是骑凤仙人。脊兽和帽钉既有装饰作用又有实用性,他们起着固定屋顶琉璃瓦的作用。在我国古代,脊兽的数量依照建筑物的等级高低而不同,数量越多,代表了殿宇等级越高。太和殿的脊兽共有10只,全国只有故宫的太和殿是这样。此外,太和殿装饰用的彩绘也是最高等级的金龙和玺。
  
  现在请大家跟随我一起登上高台来看看太和殿的内部陈设。太和殿由72根巨柱支撑,其中66根大红漆柱分布两侧,6根沥粉贴金蟠龙金柱分列宝座两旁。大殿内的地上是“金砖漫地”,这种金砖主要产于江苏省苏州,是专门为皇宫烧造的细料方砖。之所以叫金砖,是因为这种砖烧制时间130天,质地细密,敲之有金石之声。太和殿内的主要陈列室皇帝的宝座。宝座位于二米高的须弥式地平床上,通体雕以金龙,椅子后面是雕龙金漆的七扇屏风。金銮宝座是明代的遗物,清朝的皇帝继续使用。在袁世凯复辟的时候,曾经将它换成了一个西式靠背坐椅。解放以后,专家们在库房内发现了宝座的残件,经过一年多的研究整修,终于恢复了宝座原貌。
  
  现在请大家抬头看,宝座的上方时蟠龙藻井,上圆下方,深1.8米,由上、中、下三部分组成,最下层是方井,中层为八角形,上部为圆形。井内蟠龙俯首向下,龙口衔一个铜胎中空的水银球。这个球被称为轩辕镜,寓意下面宝座上的皇帝是轩辕黄帝的正统继承人。藻井的设置一方面是烘托帝王的尊严,另一方面还有镇火的含义。
  
  号,再来看宝座前方,大家可以看到宝座前设有脚踏、香筒、甪端、仙鹤、宝象等。香筒是皇帝上朝的时候用于放置檀香的,通过燃烧着的袅袅的香烟,烘托出一种神秘的气氛。再来看象,身上驼着宝瓶,里面放有五谷,寓意天下太平,吉庆有余。而象身四脚立地,稳如泰山,则象征社会和政权的稳固,称为太平有象。甪端,是传说中的一种神兽,象征着当今皇帝是圣明之君。仙鹤被古人看作是一种长寿鸟,象征着江山长存。
  
  看完了太和殿内景,现在,让我们转过头来再来看看殿外的陈设。在太和殿外的露台上左右各有一只龙头乌龟和一只铜鹤。龟鹤都是祥瑞长寿的动物,摆在这里有千秋万代的含义。再仔细观察一下,大家可能会发现,龟鹤实际上是香炉,龟鹤背上有一块可以开启的盖子,里面可以放香料,上大朝时燃香用,届时香烟从龟鹤口中逸出,烘托了一种神秘庄严地气氛。此外,在太和殿丹陛的东南角还设有日晷。日晷是我国古代的一种计时器,由晷盘和晷针组成,晷针从晷盘中心垂直穿过。自古以来,皇帝就有向天下颁布历书的责任,所以日晷的设置是国家的重器之一。太和殿西南角设有嘉量,是古代的标准量器,放置在这里象征国家的统一和强盛。这两件陈设象征皇帝在时间上和空间上都是公正无私的,对天下百姓都是坦诚、平等的。
  
  此外,在太和殿外东西两侧还各有鎏金青铜太平缸两口,每口重约2吨。鎏金是一种金属加工工艺,据说这么大的太平缸需要用黄金100两。不幸的是,上面的黄金却被八国联军用军刀刮走了。现在我们还可以清晰地看到缸身上留下的刀刮痕迹。太平缸的主要用途是储水,以备日常洒扫庭院、防火之用。据记载明朝时有热水处太监在每年的小雪节令,便给缸加盖,缸座底下加帖抽,用来生活,以防止缸内的水结冰,清朝时也是如此。紫禁城内现在共有明清两朝遗留下来的铜质及铁质太平缸308口,其中鎏金金铜缸18口。
  
  以上就是太和殿的情况。我刚才说了,太和殿是举行大典的地方,在古代,举行各种大典都要选良辰吉日,那么皇帝在何处等待这里是性时刻的来临呢?就是太和殿后面的中和殿,那我们现在就去看看!
  
  中和殿位于太和殿和保和殿之间,正处于“土”字形须弥座的中部。殿为方形,四角攒尖,鎏金宝顶。中和殿在明朝初年称为华盖殿,嘉靖年间改称中极殿,顺治年间改为中和殿。“中和”二字取自《礼记*中庸》“中也者,天下之大本也;和也者,天下之达道也。”体现了儒家中庸之道的思想。
  
  在明清两代,凡遇到三大节举行庆典前,皇帝在赶赴太和殿之前,都要在中和殿稍作休息,接受内阁、内大臣、都察院、翰林院官员及侍卫人员的朝贺。如果遇到皇帝亲自参加方泽、太庙、社稷及历代帝王庙、先师孔子、朝日、夕月等重大几点的时候,皇帝还要提前一天在中和殿阅览祝文,检查种子和农具。
  
  过了中和殿,我们就来到了保和殿,它位于“土”字形须弥座的后部,为重檐歇山顶。明初永乐年间这里叫做谨身殿,嘉靖时改为建极殿,顺治年间改为中和殿。保和殿名称来源与太和殿相同,意思是统治者应该报纸天人合一,维护万物的平衡。
  
  保和殿在明清两代用途不同。明朝的时候,在举行册立大典的是偶,皇帝都要在保和殿内更衣。在年底,还要在此宴请文武百官。在清朝时,每逢除夕,皇帝在这里举行宴会,宴请外藩王公。公主下嫁的宴请活动也在这里举行。到了乾隆皇帝以后,保和殿又多了一个用途,成为科举考试中殿试的地方。
  
  大家随我往后走,大家看,在保和殿后的台阶上的这块石雕丹陛,是艾叶青石雕刻而成的,石雕四周都是卷草纹,下端是海水江牙纹,中央是飞云簇拥的九条蛟龙。制作非常精美,是难得的石雕珍品。这块丹陛石长16.57米,宽3.07米,厚1.7米,重达200多吨,这是紫禁城内最大的一块石雕丹陛,采自北京房山境内的大石窝。
  
  好啦!故宫的前三点讲解到此结束,现在请大家参观保和殿并稍作休息,我们10分钟后集合,谢谢大家!

 


  
  题三:故宫后廷
  
  各位团友大家好,我们接下来的行程是参观游览故宫的后半部分,即后廷。说通俗些就是皇帝、后妃及其未成年子女生活居住的地方。整个“后寝”分为五大部分,即中路、东路、西路、外东路及外西路,下面我分别给大家讲一讲他们各自的作用。中路上分布着最主要的建筑,有皇帝朱的乾清宫,存放玉玺的交泰殿,皇后住的坤宁宫。东路。西路时皇帝的三宫六院居住的地方。外东路是为退休的皇帝修建、用以颐养天年的地方。外西路俗称寡妇院,是已故皇帝的后妃们养老的地方。我们先来参观后廷的中路建筑。
  
  我们现在所在的位置时乾清门前,乾清门的作用最主要的就是“御门听政”。御门听政从明永乐年间开始到顺治朝时期是在太和门举行,到了康熙年间,康熙帝将御门听政地点改在乾清门举行并逐步完善这种制度,要求冬春在辰正初刻(8点15分),夏秋在辰初初刻(7点15分)举行,所以又叫“早朝”。康熙帝是清王朝最为勤政的皇帝,从14岁亲政以来,每天御门听政,一年四季无论刮风下雨从无例外。但到了清朝后期,因为国势衰落,咸丰皇帝以后,御门听政就被取消了。1925年10月10日,在乾清门这里举行了故宫博物院的成立仪式。
  
  跨入乾清门,我们面对着的就是乾清门广场。乾清门广场时外朝和内廷的分界线,俗称“横街”。东西各有一门,东面是景运门,西边为隆宗门。景运门内北侧的排房叫“九卿房”,是文武大臣向皇帝上奏是等待宣见的地方;南侧房间时宗室王公的内朝房。大家看,在隆宗门内北侧有一排低矮的排房,这是清朝非常重要的一个机构--“军机处”。军机处建于雍正七年(1729年),当时雍正皇帝以西北用兵军情紧急的名义设立军机房,三年后改为“军机处”。在军机处任职者无定员,多则六七人,由亲王、大学士、尚书、侍郎等充任,称为“军机大臣”或“大军机”。军机处职称每日晋见皇帝,商承处理军国事务。清朝军机处的设立,使皇帝集权达到了顶峰,完成了中国封建社会制度的高度集中。宣统三年(1911年)内阁成立后,军机处被裁撤。
  
  在乾清门内东侧,坐南朝北的房间时上书房,是供皇子们读书的地方。西侧坐南朝北的房间为南书房,是康熙朝设立的宫廷御用机要秘书机构,即他的“私人秘书班子”,便于他与翰林研讨学问,又是他读书学习的书房。这里发生最大的时间就是康熙擒鳌拜,相信看过电视剧《康熙大帝》和对历史感兴趣的朋友对这一段故事已经是相当熟悉了。南书房东边为宫殿监办事处,里面悬挂着康熙皇帝御笔题的匾额“敬事房”。
  
  各位朋友,现在我们来到了乾清宫,乾清宫是紫禁城后廷的主要建筑,是明朝至康熙皇帝处理政务和居住的地方。到雍正年间将皇帝住所和处理日常政务的地方改到养心殿,但这里仍然是举行一些重要活动的地方,像皇帝死后停灵,皇帝每年举行的宴会,包括正月十五的灯宴都在这儿举行。乾清宫的建筑规制以及殿外的陈设大都与太和殿相似,也是重檐庑殿顶,殿前也设有铜龟、铜鹤、日晷、嘉量。只是殿顶上的垂脊兽数量少了,只有9个;日晷、嘉量、铜龟和铜鹤小了,而且这里的嘉量是圆形的,体现出等级略微的降低。与太和殿不同的地方时:一是在乾清宫丹陛台下两侧各设有两座文石台,上面放置一个流金的“江山社稷金殿”,代表着江山永固。另外在乾清宫丹陛台上下各有一对灯杆石座,用来逢年过节挂花灯。
  
  乾清宫中陈设与其他殿宇没有什么区别。但最有名的也是最重要的是殿内正中悬挂的“正大光明”匾额。那是清朝皇帝的祖训,作为治国、修身、平天下的基本准则。匾的后面是清朝自雍正皇帝以后放置秘密立储诏书的地方。那有朋友可能要问了,什么是秘密立储?“储”是皇储的意思,即是皇位的继承人。秘密立储是清政权独创的一种皇位继承制度。清政权子入关之前,以议政王大臣会议的方式,由八旗旗主公推皇位继承人选。入关以后,受到汉文化的影响开始实行嫡长子继承制,这就引起诸多皇子争权夺位的事件。康熙年间曾几次立太子又废太子,心竭力枯,这一尝试最终以失败告终。雍正皇帝即位之后,吸取前朝的教训,建立了秘密立储制度。具体做法就是皇帝生前通过对诸多皇子的考察,将中意的皇子用遗诏的方式确定下来,一式两份密封在文件匣中,一份皇帝随身携带,另一份藏于乾清宫“正大光明”匾的后面。等皇帝驾崩之后,顾命大臣当着诸皇子的面将两份诏书同时去除进行核对,核对无误后,即遵照遗诏立新皇帝,这一制度的确立使皇权转移的过程实现了的相对的稳定。用这种方式继承皇位的有乾隆、嘉庆、道光、咸丰四位皇帝。
  
  乾清宫在明朝一直是皇帝的寝宫,在这里发生过许多重大的时间,如“壬寅宫变”、“红丸案”、“移宫案”、“武宗戏火”、“崇祯出逃”等。
  
  “壬寅宫变”发生于明嘉靖年间。由于嘉靖皇帝崇信道教,崇信炼丹,寻求长生,对太监宫女非常残暴。宫女们忍无可忍,以杨金英为首的宫女起来进行反抗,决定在嘉靖皇帝熟睡时将其勒死,行动当晚由于宫女们国语紧张将绳索打了个死结,刺杀没有得逞。事后,其中有一个宫女害怕将此事告诉皇太后。皇太后将其十三人凌迟处死。
  
  “红丸案”发生于明万历年间。朱常洛虽然是万历皇帝朱翊钧的长子,但自幼没有得到父爱,20岁时才被立为太子。朱翊钧驾崩之后,朱常洛即位,即泰昌帝。因过度沉迷于酒色,朱常洛即位不久就病了,后服用大臣进贡上来的红丸,吃了第一颗感觉有所好转,所以又吃了第二颗,结果却一命呜呼,前后只做了29天的皇帝,所以被人们称为“一月天子”。
  
  移宫案是在一月天子朱常洛死了以后,他的爱妃李选侍野心勃勃,想要夺取朝政大权,因此挟持即将登基的皇太子朱由校占据乾清宫不离开,群臣用计将皇帝骗出来之后强迫李选侍移宫的事件。
  
  好,大家请随我往后走。各位请看,我们面前这座四角攒尖顶的大殿叫交泰殿,取“天地交合,安康交合,安康美满”之意。明成祖朱棣硬件北京紫禁城,当时内廷部分并没有交泰殿。到嘉靖年间,世宗朱厚熜对北京的宫殿谈秒进行了许多的改造,此间在乾清宫和坤宁宫之间加建了交泰殿。交泰殿是皇后的正宫,逢年过节,皇后都在交泰殿接受嫔妃、命妇的朝贺。此外,依据礼法,每年春分皇帝都要到先农坛去亲耕。祈求五谷丰登。皇后则要去先蚕坛(今北海幼儿园)去祭祀蚕神。在祭祀前皇后要在这儿验看采桑工具。
  
  交泰殿内上方悬挂着康熙帝御笔“无为”匾额。意为不施惩罚、以德政感化人民从而达到天下大治。殿内设皇后宝座,宝座东侧摆放着乾隆年制古代计时器铜壶滴漏,西侧是嘉庆年间造办处自制的大自鸣钟。环绕宝座有二十五个匣子藏有二十五方宝玺(现宝玺在珍宝馆养性殿展出)。“玺”原本是印的统称,秦代以后成为皇帝印章的专称。宝玺为国家权力的象征,在过去,皇帝发布什么命令都会有什么印章。乾隆以前,印章的使用非常混乱,乾隆年间系统地将印章进行了归类,一共分出了25方面,并且郑重其事地造匣制器,藏于交泰殿内。这25方宝玺,每一方使用范围都有明确的规定:有的用于颁发诏书;有的用于公布皇榜、奖励官吏;有的用于军事;有的用于文教方面;还有的用于外交和祭祀等国事方面。印文为满汉篆刻。
  
  交泰殿后面的宫殿就是坤宁宫,是明朝至雍正时期皇后的寝宫。“坤”是地的意思,“宁”是宁静、安宁之意,寓意皇后是后宫之主,母仪天下,应该有大地一样安忍不动的胸怀。明代的皇后都住在这里,清雍正皇帝以后坤宁宫不再是皇后的住所,东暧阁成为皇帝大婚的洞房。婚后,皇后会搬到东西六宫中的某一宫居住。坤宁宫的作用因此发生了变化,西部大殿改为萨满教的祭神场所。坤宁宫祭神是一种多神崇拜的满洲先祖遗风。每年正月初二、二月初一、八月初一三次祭神仪式和坤宁宫立杆祭神仪式比较隆重,皇帝及王公大臣均参加。宫内西大炕为供神的位置,所供的神游释迦牟尼、观世音菩萨、关圣帝君及蒙古神之类。祭品均用猪肉,设香碟、净水及打糕。皇帝如果亲临祭神,则在宫内西大殿北向坐,皇子以下诸大臣西向,席地坐垫上。每人一碗酒、一盘肉、一碗汤、一碗饭,吃肉用刀割食。酒肉分赐所有在场的共享。今天在殿内可以看到一口大锅,这是祭祀时煮猪肉所用的。
  
  各位朋友,穿过坤宁门,现在我们来到了紫禁城的后花园--御花园,这里是帝后休憩娱乐的场所。整个花园呈长方形,占地只有1.2万平方米,是紫禁城面积的1.5%,但却容纳了大小20多座不同风格的亭台楼阁。花园北为顺贞门,东南为琼苑东门,西南为琼苑西门。园内古柏参天、奇花异石遍地,布局紧凑,小巧玲珑。御花园分为中轴线及左、右三大部分,现在我先给大家介绍一下中轴线上的钦安殿。
  
  钦安殿位于御花园天一门内的高台上,始建于明永乐十五年(1417),是供奉道教四象中北方水神--真武大帝的地方,是北京中轴线上惟一的一所宗教性建筑,也是紫禁城最北面的一座宫殿。殿内共有大小神龛11座,位居中央的三大两小神龛内供奉的都是真武大帝。大家可以看到,中央龛内是明代所铸的巨型真武铜像,披发跣足,身着云氅,手持法剑,脚踏龟蛇,十分威武。据说真武大帝有镇火的神力,而紫禁城内几乎都是木结构大殿,最怕火,故每年立春、立夏、立秋及立冬之日皇帝来此上香以祈祷水神保佑皇宫四季平安。此外,在钦安殿的东北侧是由太湖石堆砌而成的堆秀山,山顶有御景亭,它是御花园内最高的建筑,为帝后在九九重阳节登高远望而设。钦安殿的西北侧是延晖阁,是皇帝登临赋诗的地方。琼苑东门北侧西向的是绛雪轩,因轩前植名贵海棠多株,花开时似带血红梅,故名。琼苑西门之北二层的楼阁是养性斋,宣统年间,是溥仪的英文老师庄士敦休息的地方。园中还有代表春夏秋冬四季的亭子,分别是东侧的万春亭、浮碧亭,西侧的千秋亭和澄瑞亭。
  
  另外,清朝宫廷选秀女的活动也是在御花园举行的。具体位置有两种说法:一说在延晖阁前,一说在坤宁门之北。清朝挑选秀女的范围只限在八旗之内,候选女子的年龄从15岁开始预选,5年之内未被选中便允许自行则配成家。选进宫的秀女出路有二:一是备内廷主位,就是指可能被皇帝看中而成为妃嫔,当年的兰儿就是在这里被选中的,后来成为通知大青王朝长达48年的慈禧太后。二是与皇子、皇孙栓婚,或为亲王、郡王以及亲王、郡王之子指婚。
  
  我们现在位于紫禁城的北门,明代曾叫玄武门,清代为了避讳康熙皇帝玄烨的“玄”字,改为神武门。神武门是皇家的报时台,原来门楼上设有钟楼,以报时刻。如果皇帝不在宫中,神武门上报时,起更击钟108响,以后每更击鼓,第二天早晨再鸣钟;皇帝如在宫中,则只击鼓而不鸣钟。
  
  就在神武门处,清嘉庆年间还发生了一次行刺事件。嘉庆八年(1803)二月二十日,嘉庆皇帝从圆明园回宫进神武门,子啊顺贞门换轿时遇到了刺客。一个人从神武门内西侧冲出来,犯架行凶,由于周围人员及时护驾,将刺客逮捕。经调查刺客叫陈德,是在宫中做工的杂役。审查结果以陈德患有疯病结案,处以凌迟之刑,他的两个儿子也被斩决。行刑地点在宣武门外菜市口。
  
  好,故宫后廷部分就给大家介绍在这里,各位团友可以在这里拍照留念并稍微休息。20分钟后我们还会在这里集合。谢谢!
  

 


  题四:故宫后廷外东路
  
  各位朋友,接下来我将带领大家参观故宫后廷外东路的主要景观。
  
  紫禁城东北部有一组自成体系,占地4.6万平方米的建筑群,称为外东路,统称宁寿全宫。明朝时宁寿宫一带是一个面积很大的空旷区域,只有零星几座建筑,住的是过世皇帝的嫔妃。清朝康熙年间,为了给皇太后养老,开始对这组宫殿进行大规模营建,将其改建为比较完备的宫殿区。乾隆年间,乾隆帝弘历为了给自己归政后找个养老的地方,用了4年的时间对这组建筑进行大规模的修葺改建,增建了宁寿宫等建筑。但乾隆皇帝退位后并没有过来居住,此后这组建筑空置了一百多年。光绪年间,为了给慈禧太后养老,花费银两60万两对宁寿宫全宫进行了修缮。慈禧太后万年大部分时间都住在这里,在这里过的60岁生日;1900年八国联军侵入北京时慈禧是从这里出逃的;慈禧死后也是寨这里停灵并从这里出殡的。
  
  宁寿全宫这组建筑实际上是微缩紫禁城,皇极殿、宁寿宫为前朝;养心殿、乐寿堂、颐和轩为后廷;宁寿宫花园(乾隆花园)为御花园,此外其东侧有紫禁城内最大的戏台畅音阁。米钱,宁寿全宫的皇极殿、养性殿、乐寿堂等宫殿已辟为故宫博物院的珍宝馆。
  
  我们先从最南端的九龙壁说起。九龙壁位于皇极门前,是宁寿全宫的照壁。整座九龙壁是用270块各色琉璃烧制拼接而成,高3.5米,宽29.4米,壁面长71.6米。在碧波翻滚的海水中,9天巨龙腾云驾雾、飞腾于海水江崖间;巨龙形态各异,栩栩如生。尤其是正中间的这条黄龙,正面直对皇极门,目光顺着御路凝视着皇极殿,烘托出这一区域的庄严肃穆和至高无上。目前在我国境内共有三座明清时遗留下来的九龙壁,另外两座分别在北京北海公园北岸和山西大同明朝王府。故宫九龙壁系乾隆年间改建宁寿全宫时建造,龙的颜色分为黄、蓝、白、紫四种,中间的蟠龙和东西两端的行龙均为黄色。
  
  穿过九龙壁背面的皇极门、宁寿门,现在我们面前的是皇极殿。皇极殿和其后的宁寿宫分别与乾清宫、坤宁宫相同。康熙年间叫宁寿宫,乾隆改建后更为皇极殿,而将其后殿定名为宁寿宫。过去,皇宫中有各种类型的宴会。内廷筵席、宗室筵席、御殿大雁、婚嫁赏赉筵席。其中最值得一提的是千叟宴。千叟宴属于内廷筵席,清代共举行过4次。第一次是康熙60大寿时,在畅春园,参加者为65岁以上的老人近2000人。第二次是1722年康熙六十一年,在乾清宫,730多人参加。第三次,乾隆五十年(1785),仍在乾清宫,参加者为60岁以上的老人3000多人。第四次,乾隆六十一年(1976),地点就在我们面前的皇极殿3056位年过花甲的老人参加,这是规模最大的一次千叟宴,也是最后一次。皇极殿现在为故宫珍宝馆前殿,室内金碧辉煌,灿然若新,主要展出的是帝后使用的各类首饰、摆件、日常用品。
  
  宁寿宫位于皇极殿之后,制如坤宁宫。乾隆时为言情之所。晚清时,光绪亲政后,慈禧舍慈宁宫而迁居于此。
  
  号,请大家跟随我继续往后走,现在我们所在的位置时养性殿。养性殿原来是仿照养心殿为太上皇建造的理政之所。现在是展示各种礼器的地方,其中最主要的是玉磬和编钟。
  
  养性殿东侧为畅音阁,它是紫禁城内最大的戏楼,建于乾隆四十一年(1776),是清代三大戏楼之一。畅春阁大戏楼高20.71米,分为三层,自上而下分别称为福台、禄台、寿台,结构与颐和园大戏楼相类。畅音阁北侧的阅是楼是帝后观戏的地方,两侧厢房是王公大臣陪坐看戏的地方。现在的阅是楼是陈列宫中戏剧服装道具的展堂。
  
  养性殿后的这座宫是乐寿堂。原设计为乾隆作太上皇时的寝宫,但乾隆一天没有住过。慈禧太后把这里的西暖阁当作了她的寝宫,现在这里是珍宝馆展示馆藏艺术品最多的地方,主要的展品有:第一件是寿山和福海玉雕。这是用两块巨大的和田青玉雕刻成的,寓意吉祥的玉雕作品。寿山名为“丹台春晓”,玉山上刻青松云峰、瑞兽出没,下边是铜座承托,象征“寿比南山不老松”。福海名为“青玉云龙玉瓮”,缸形,雕以九条游龙升腾于波涛云雾之间,线面是海水铜座承托,象征“福如东海长流水”。这两件玉雕都是在扬州加工的,历时4年菜完成。乐寿堂后殿还有一块更大的玉雕,就是“大禹治水玉山”,这是我国现存最大的古代玉雕作品,高224厘米,重5吨多。材质和寿山、福海一样,也是和田青玉,采自新疆,经过8000里路的运输才到达北京。玉料运到京城后,由紫禁城内如意馆的工匠估料设计式样,先用腊铸出一个同样体积的范模,然后顺着运河将玉料和腊模一起运往扬州,由扬州的玉工雕琢而成。这样的工程,前后历时竟达10年之久。内容以大禹治水的故事雕在玉山上,人物场景,形态各异。玉山背面还刻有乾隆皇帝的御题诗文。
  
  乐寿堂中的第三件重要展品是一块用象牙为材料编成的凉席,选用的是质量上好的象牙,将象牙劈成宽0.3厘米、厚0.1厘米的牙条编织而成,展示了极高的工艺水平。宫内这样的象牙席原来共有5件,现在还剩下3件,我们面前的这条席长216厘米,宽139厘米,是雍正年间所制。
  
  乐善堂再北边是颐和轩,现在以展出佛教法器、金质佛塔为主,其余为案头摆件。
  
  宁寿宫再北边的花园就是宁寿宫花园,又叫乾隆花园。整个园子南北长160米,东西宽还不到40米。园中建筑有古华轩、禊赏亭、遂初堂、耸秀亭、符望阁、倦勤斋等,座座玲珑剔透,错落有致。乾隆当年常在在这里赐宴、听曲、看戏以及与王公大臣唱和。
  
  在宁寿宫北边的位置,有个院落,叫景琪阁。光绪的妃子珍妃曾经被关在这个院子的厢房里。景琪阁再北边事贞顺门,门内有口井,叫珍妃井,因珍妃被淹死在那口井里而得名。
  
  珍妃是满洲镶红旗人,姓他他拉氏,出身贵胄之家,一门书香。13岁和其姐(瑾妃)同时被选入宫。光绪十五年册封为珍嫔,五年后晋升为珍妃。居住在东六宫的景仁宫,因得宠常居养心殿。珍妃性格很活泼,有才华,喜欢照相,有时男扮女装,很得光绪的喜欢,但是慈禧不喜欢他。维新变法失败之后,光绪被囚禁在海南的瀛台,珍妃则被囚在宁寿全宫北部景琪阁中的厢房之内。1900年八国联军进京,慈禧太后出逃前,让崔玉贵、王德环将珍妃推入贞顺门内井中淹死,珍妃时年才24岁。第二年,清廷与八国联军议和,慈禧太后派崔玉贵先行回京,让内务府备棺将珍妃打捞出来,装殓入棺,葬在京城西部的田村。慈禧回京后,觉得内心不安,下懿旨追封珍妃为皇贵妃。
  
  好啦,各位朋友,故宫后廷外东路路德讲解到此结束,请各位稍微休息一会儿,10分钟后我们在门口集合。谢谢各位的合作。

 


  
  题五:故宫后廷内西路主要建筑及御花园
  
  各位朋友,接下来我将带领大家参观故宫后廷内西路的主要景观。乾清宫西侧月华门外有一条长巷叫西一长街,街南端为内右门,北端为琼苑西门。我们要游览的后廷内西路范围就是指西一长街西侧的宫殿区。
  
  现在我们要参观的这组宫殿叫养心殿,“养心”二字出自《孟子》“养心莫善于寡欲”,意为“养心以育德”,就是要通过深入思索,修到美好的品德,以德治天下。养心殿在明朝的时候曾是明世宗朱厚熜修道养身的地方。清初顺治皇帝因患天花病逝于养心殿。康熙继位后,显示住在保和殿,后来移居乾清宫。康熙病逝后,雍正皇帝为了给他守孝就搬到了养心殿,丧期满了之后也没有搬回乾清宫,从此养心殿称为清朝后来皇帝日常生活起居和处理政务的地方,雍正的这个决定使紫禁城内廷的格局出现变化。从此养心殿的地位越来越重要。随着养心殿的地位的上升,内部配套设施很快跟了上来。在紫禁城内,它成为地位仅次于太和殿的宫殿。
  
  养心殿整个建筑呈“工”字形,分为前、后殿。前殿是皇帝处理朝政的地方,后殿为帝后休息的地方。前殿又分为正殿、东暧阁和西暧阁。正殿内设有宝座、御案,屋顶上有蟠龙、藻井及轩辕镜,是皇帝接见大臣的地方。西暧阁是处理日常政务、单独召见大臣、批阅奏章的地方。西暧阁又分成了一大两小三个空间,中间大的为勤政亲贤殿,两个小间一个为通道,另一个就是著名的“三希堂”。三希堂珍藏了三幅传世书法墨宝,分别是王羲之的《快雪时晴帖》、王献之的《中秋帖》、王珣的《伯远帖》。乾隆对这三幅法帖爱不释手,不时揣摩,所以起名为“三希堂”。另一种说法是乾隆对“三希”的解释是“士希贤、贤希圣、圣希天”。寓意臣贤、君明、政通人和。
  
  前殿的东暧阁就是历史上有名的垂帘听政的地方。当年慈禧太后大权在握,于是以皇帝太小不能处理国事为名与慈安太后两宫垂帘听政。各位请看屋内那个帘子,当年小皇帝坐在前面的宝座上,两位皇太后坐在后面,中间有帘将皇帝及太后们隔开。慈安坐南座,慈禧坐在北座。此外在养心殿正殿也设置了垂帘听政的格局,用黄纱屏八扇隔在皇帝宝座之后,慈安位于东座,慈禧坐于西座。
  
  养心殿寝宫在“工”字形建筑的后部,一字排开共五间。正面明间设坐炕一铺,东次间设宝座、紫檀长条案,西次间设紫檀云龙大立柜和坐炕。东西两梢间正面为炕床,即所谓的“龙床”。据说东梢间的床是为皇后来时用的,西梢间的床则是为妃嫔来时用的。东西梢间两侧有净房,即我们今天所说的厕所,净盆用银或瓷制成,足可见帝后生活的奢侈。养心殿后东侧名为体顺堂,是皇后侍寝是的临时住的地方,西侧为燕禧堂,是皇贵妃侍寝时的居所。其他嫔妃则住殿外的东西围房。
  
  养心殿也是清帝退位、结束中国长达二千余年的封建统治的见证人。1911年,孙中山领导的辛亥革命取得胜利,在大势已去的形势之下,1912年2月12日,隆裕皇太后被迫在此代替末代皇帝破译签署了退位诏书。根据民国政府的优待政策,溥仪仍在此居住了13年,1924年冯玉祥将军下令将其逐出故宫。1925年10月10日故宫对外开放。号,下面请各位在这里参观一下,5分钟后集合。
  
  好,各位,这里是养心殿北侧西六宫中的储秀宫,建于明初,嘉靖十四年(1535)改称储秀宫,是清末慈禧初入宫时居住的地方。咸丰年间,慈禧一秀女的身份选入宫后,从被封为兰贵人开始,直到成为太后以前一直住在储秀宫。储秀宫的最后一位主人是末代皇帝溥仪的皇后婉容。1924年11月5日,溥仪和婉容正在宫中谈笑,突然发生冯玉祥“逼宫”的事变,二人仓皇出逃。故宫刚刚对外开放后,参观者还可以看到储秀宫内桌上还有吃剩下的半个苹果,打开的饼干盒,干了的佛手、木瓜和走廊上已经干枯的菊花。好啦,各位朋友,现在请各位参观储秀宫,5分钟后我们在门口集合。谢谢各位的合作。
  
  各位朋友,现在我们来到了紫禁城的后花园--御花园,这里是帝后休憩娱乐的场所。整个花园呈长方形,占地只有1.2万平方米,是紫禁城面积的1.5%,但却容纳了大小20多座不同风格的亭台楼阁,花园北为顺贞门,东南为穷苑东门,西南为琼苑西门。园内古柏参天、奇花异石遍地,布局紧凑,小巧玲珑。御花园分为中轴线及左、右三大部分,现在我先给大家介绍一下中轴线上的钦安殿。
  
  钦安殿位于御花园天一门内的高台上,始建于明永乐十五年(1417),是供奉道教四象中北方水神--真武大帝的地方,是北京中轴线上唯一的一所宗教性建筑,也是紫禁城最北面的一座宫殿。殿内共有大小神龛11座,位居中央的三大两小神龛内供奉的都是真武大帝。大家可以看到,中央龛内事明代所铸的巨型真武铜像,披发跌足,身着云氅,手持法剑,脚踏龟蛇,十分威武。据说真武大帝有镇火神力,而紫禁城内几乎都是木结构大殿,最怕火,故每年立春、立夏、立秋及立冬之日皇帝来此上香以祈祷水神保佑皇宫四季平安。
  
  各位朋友,现在我们的位置是在御花园的东侧,这里有两个亭子,名为万春和浮壁,在西侧相对应的位置也有两个亭子叫千秋及澄瑞,这四亭为一年四季的象征。再请看这座假山,它的名字叫堆秀山,是由太湖石堆砌而成,山顶有御景亭,它是御花园内最高的建筑,为皇后在九九重阳节登高望远而设。
  
  钦安殿是西北侧是延晖阁,是皇帝登临赋诗的地方。还有一种说法认为这里就是清代选秀女的地方。清朝挑选秀女的范围只限在八旗之内,候选女子的年龄从15岁开始预选,5年之内未被选中便允许自行择配成家。选进宫的秀女出路有二:一是备内廷主位,就是指可能被皇帝看中而成为妃嫔,当年的兰儿就是在这里被选中,后来成为统治大清王朝长达48年的慈禧太后。二是与皇子、皇孙栓婚,或成为亲王、郡王以及亲王、郡王之子指婚。
  
  琼苑东门北侧西向的是绛雪轩,因轩前植名贵海棠多株,花开时似带血红梅,故名。琼苑西门之北二层的楼阁是养性斋,宣统年间,是溥仪的英文老师庄士敦休息的地方。
  
  好啦,各位朋友,故宫后廷内西路的讲解到此结束,现在请各位参观御花园,5分钟后我们咋门口集合。谢谢各位的合作。


  
  英文范例
  
  题一:午门前讲故宫


  
  Ladies and gentlemen:
  
  The Palace Museum is located in the center of Beijing. It is also known as the Forbidden City in the old days. Actually it was the imperial palace for the emperors and served as both living quarters and the venue of the state administration in the Ming and Qing dynasties. Its name, on the one hand, comes from ancient Chinese astronomers' belief that God's abode or the Purple Palace, the pivot of the celestial world, is located in the Pole Star, at the center of the heavens . Hence, as the Son of God, the emperor should live in the Purple City. On the other hand, except for palace maids, eunuchs and guards, ordinary the Forbidden City and the Purple City.
  
  It took 14 years to complete the magnificent palace. Construction began in 1406 and finished in 1420. The following year, in 1421 the capital of the Ming Dynasty was moved from Nanjing to Beijing. Starting from the third emperor of the Ming Dynasty Zhu Di to the last emperor of the Qing Dynasty Pu Yi, altogether 24 emperors lived here for a total of 491 years. 14 of then were Ming emperors and 10 were Qing emperors.
  
  The Forbidden City covers an area of 72 hectares with a total floor space of about 163,000 square meters. It is rectangular in shape, 960 meters long from north to south and 750 meters wide from east to west with a10-meter high city wall surrounded and encircled by a 52 meter-wide moat. At each corner of the surrounding wall, there is a magnificent watchtower which was heavily guarded in the old days.
  
  The Forbidden City now consists of more than 90 palaces and courtyards, 980 buildings with rooms of 8,704. Most of the structures in the Forbidden City were made of wood with white marble, stone or brick foundations. The building materials were from parts of our country. The timber came from Sichuan, Guizhou, Guandxi, Hunan and Yunnan provinces in southwest China. But in the Qing Dynasty, the timbers were transported from northeast China. Other construction materials, including brick, stone and lime, were used by both Dynasties. The golden bricks that paved the halls were manufactured in Suzhou, refined bricks used to build the foundation of halls were made in Linqing, and lime came from Yizhou. White marble was provided regularly by Fangshan County and glazed tiles by Sanjiadian.
  
  The Forbidden City can be divided into two parts: the Outer Court and the Inner Palace. The Outer Court consists of three main buildings where the emperors attended the grand of rear three main buildings and the six eastern palaces and six western palaces where the emperor used to handle daily affairs and the living quarters for the emperor, empress and imperial concubines to live in.
  
  The Forbidden City is the best-preserved imperial palace in China and the largest ancient palatial structure in the world. In 1987 it was listed as the world cultural heritage by UNESCO.
  
  The Meridian Gate is the main entrance to the Forbidden City. It is called Meridian Gate because the emperor believed that the meridian line went right through the Forbidden City and his imperial residence was the center of the whole universe. It is 35.6meters high with five towers on the top, so it is also nicknames as the “Five-Phoenix Tower.”
  
  The Meridian Gate was the place to announce the new lunar year calendar on the first day of 10th lunar month every year. Lanterns would also be hung up on the Meridian Gate on the 15th day of the first lunar month during the Ming Dynasty, when all the officials would have a feast in the Forbidden City and ordinary citizens, when all the officials would have a fast in the Forbidden City and ordinary citizens would go to the Meridian Gate to look at the beautiful lanterns. When a general returned from battle, the ceremony of “Accepting Captives of War” was held here. The “Court Beating” also took place here.
  
  The gate has five openings. The central passageway was for the emperor exclusively. But apart from the emperor, the empress could use the central passageway on the day of the imperial wedding ceremony. However, after the palace examination, the first top three outstanding scholars were allowed to go through the central gate. The high-ranking civil and military officials went in through the side gate on the east. The two smaller ones on both sides at the corner were for the lowranking officials. During the Palace Examination all the candidates went in from these two side-gates according to the odd number or even number.
  


  题二:故宫前朝(中路:太和门至保和殿)
  
  Entering the Meridian Gate, there are five marble bridges on the Inner Golden Water River, shaped like a bow. The five marble bridges just look like five arrows reporting symbolically to heaven. The five bridges were supposed to represent the five virtues preached by Confucius-benevolence, righteousness, rite, intelligence and fidelity.
  
  Across the Inner Golden Water Bridge, we get to the Gate of Supreme Harmony. During the Ming and early Qing dynasties, here was the place where the emperor gave his audience, accepted documents from his ministers and made decisions here. There are two bronze lions guarding in front of the Gate of Supreme Harmony. The male lion was usually put on the left, playing with an embroidered design ball, which is said to show the emperor's supreme power. The other one on the right is the female lion, playing with a lion cub with its left paw symbolizing prosperity of the royal family's offsprings.
  
  Across the Gate of Supreme Harmony , we come to the Hall of Supreme Harmony. Here the emperor held grand ceremonies such as the emperor's enthronement ceremony, the wedding ceremony, dispatched generals to the battles, and the emperor received the successful candidates of the imperial examination etc. Also, the emperor held grand feasts each year on New Year's Day, Winter solstice and his own birthday.
  
  The Hall of Supreme Harmony is 35.5 meters high with double layered roof that represents the highest construction rank of all. Now, let's ascend the stairs and move on to look at articles in display on two sides of the hall. On the top layer of the terrace stands a sundial on the east an imperial grain measure on the west. The sundial is an ancient time measure or a time-measuring apparatus used in the old days. The sundial tells the time by seeing the shadow of the metal pin on the sundial, which has an inclination angle of 50 degrees with the graduation on it. The grain measure was used as the national standard measure in agriculture in the old days. Both the grain measure and the sundial were symbols of the emperor's justice and rectitude.
  
  There are two pairs of incense burners in the shape of bronze dragon-headed tortoises and bronze cranes placed on each side. They are both symbols of longevity.
  
  When you look up the building in the Forbidden City, you can see mythical animal statues on the eaves of each building. Originally, there used to be big wooden nails on the roof to prevent the tiles from sliding down. Later they were replaced by glazed tiles, which were shaped into mythical animal statues for better beautification. They are symbols of auspiciousness and peace, and people believed that they are capable of subduing fire and warding off evil spirits.
  
  Inside of the Hall of Supreme Harmony, you can see the gilded caisson ceiling high above the throne with a magnificent sculpture of a curling dragon playing with a huge pear was called “Xuanyuan Jing”, representing orthodox succession.
  
  This hall is supported by 72 giant columns inside. In the old days, the traditional way of the Chinese to calculate a “room” is that: a square enclosed by four pillars was treated as one “room”, so the hall can be said to have 55 “rooms” in total. The six columns inside are gilded and painted with coiled dragon amidst clouds, and the rest are painted red.
  
  The emperor's throne is placed on the dais in the center, and carved in cloud and dragon patterns and gilded. On both sides of the throne are a pair of elephant-shaped incense burners symbolize universal peace and two incense burners shaped as a mythical animal 9,000 kilometers per day and speaking all the languages of nearby kingdoms. Around the throne stand a pair of bronze cranes and in front of the dais is four cloisonné incense burners. The floor on the ground is paved with “Gold Bricks”, specially made in Suzhou.
  
  The Hall of Middle Harmony is a square-shaped hall with a single pyramidic roof standing behind the Hall of Supreme Harmony. This was the place where the emperor would take a short rest before he went to the Hall of Supreme Harmony for grand ceremonies. Every year before the emperor went to the Altars and Temples, the emperor would receive and read the sacrificial address here.
  
  Before the emperor went to the Altar of Agriculture for offering the sacrifice, the seeds intended for spring sowing and the ploughs were examined here, just to show the concern of the emperor for agriculture.
  
  According to the rule, the imperial genealogy should be revised every ten years. The ceremony of presenting the genealogy to the emperor for revision and approval would also be held here.
  
  Now, we come to the Hall of Preserving Harmony, the last of the three front halls.
  
  In the Ming and Qing dynasties, on each New Year's Eve and the 15th day of the lunar moth, banquets would be held to entertain the civil and military officials and the princes and envoys of the Mongolian nobles and other nationalities. To celebrate the princess's marriage, the emperor would incite the bridegroom and his father as well as their relatives who served for the imperial government to a banquet.
  
  The Imperial Palace Exam was held here once every three years in the Qing dynasty.
  
  Just behind the Hall of Preserving Harmony, there is a big Marble Rampcarved with mountain cliffs, sea waves, clouds and nine dragons. It is 16.57 meters long, 3.07 meters wide and 1.7 meters thick, and weighs about 250 tons.


  
  题三:后廷中路(乾清门至神武门)
  
  The Gate of Heavenly Purity, where emperors from Kangxi to Xianfeng in Qing Dynasty sat on the throne hearing reports and making decisions, is the main gate of the Inner Court.
  
  In front of the Palace of Heavenly there is a small miniature gilded pavilion standing on the east is called Jiangshan Pavilion, representing the integrity of the country; the one on the west is called Sheji Pavilion , the God of Land and Grain, a symbol of bumper harvest in agriculture.
  
  The first of the three back palaces, the Palace of Heavenly Purity was where the 14 emperors of the Ming and the first two emperors of the Qing Dynasties lived and handle the daily affairs. It was used as an audience chamber for receiving envoys from vassal states who presented their tributes to the emperor. Here was also the place for holding the mourning service for the deceased emperor. The famous “banquet of thousand aged people” was held twice here in the Qing Dynasty. The three famous events took place here. They are “the red pill” event, the “palace coup in 1542” and the event of “moving from this palace.”
  
  The plaque inscribed by the first Qing Emperor Shunzhi, hangs over the throne in the palace and reads, “Be Open and Aboveboard.” It enumerates with modesty, the qualities an ideal Son of Heaven should possess. Beginning in the Qianlong's reign, for reasons of security the name of the successor to the throne was not announced publicly, as it had been preciously, but was written instead on two pieces of paper, one kept on the emperor's person throughout his reign, and the other placed in a small box that was stored behind this plaque. The box was opened only when the emperor passed away.
  
  The Palace of Union and Peace was the place where the empress held the important ceremonies and her birthday celebration. The empress usually received greetings from the concubines, concubines, princes and princesses on her birthday celebration.
  
  In the Qing Dynasty, the ceremony for examining the tools of picking mulberry was held here one day before the empress went out to offer the sacrifices on the altar for silkworm in spring.
  
  In 1748, Emperor Qianlong kept twenty-five imperial seals in this hall, symbolizing the imperial power of the emperor. Twenty-five was regarded as a heavenly number for the reason of that: if we plus the total odd numbers of one, three, five, seven and nine together, that is twenty-five which means the imperial authority from the heaven and also indicates the Qing dynasty could rule the country for at least twenty-five generations.
  
  The Water Clock is placed on the west side of this building. It is a time-measure, made by the manufacturing office of the Qing Dynasty based on the Western mechanic theory. On the west of this building, there is a 5.6-meter-high large western chiming clock.
  
  There is a plaque hung in the center of this hall, with two Chinese characters “Wu Wei” inscribed on it.
  
  The palace of Earthly Tranquility was used as the residence for the empresses during the Ming and early Qing dynasties. During the Qing dynasty, the western chamber became the wedding chamber for the emperor.
  
  The Imperial Garden is located on the north-south axis almost at the north-south axis almost at the northern end of the Forbidden City. It is rectangular in shape, 90 meters long from north to south and 130 meters wide from east to west, with an area of over 11, 700 square meters.
  
  The Hall of Imperial Peace is the main building in the Imperial Garden and also the only religious building built along the central axis. It is a Taoist temple and inside the hall the statue of the King of Xuan Wu used to be enshrined.
  
  There are four pavilions built on left and right of the Hall of Imperial peace, two on each side, representing the four seasons of the year. Near the north gate in the Imperial Garden, the Imperial View Pavilion stands on an artificial hill of rocks. The rockery is called “Collecting Elegance Hill”。 In the old days, the emperor would climb up the hills to celebrate the Double Ninth Festival every year in this way.


  
  题四:故宫后廷外东路(宁寿全宫)
  
  In the Outer Eastern Palaces there is a group of buildings called the Whole Palace of Tranquil Longevity. In the Qing Dynasty, they were the living quarters for Emperor Qianlong after his abdication. Emperor Qianlong was the 4th emperor of the Qing Dynasty. He was the only emperor who decided to abdicate after he ruled the country for 60 years. He offered the power to his son, who was 37 already. This place was originally built for the retired emperor Qianlong to live, but later Empress Dowager Cixi lived here before and after her 60th birthday.
  
  This group of building in the Outer Eastern Palaces is independent of the other parts of the Forbidden City. But actually it is a miniature Imperial Palace. The general plan for the buildings here was exactly the same as the buildings on the central axis. The main buildings in The Whole Palaces of Tranquil Longevity, from south to north are the Hall of Imperial Supremacy(皇极殿),the Palace of Tranquil Longevity(宁寿宫),the Hall for Cultivating Character(养心殿),the Hall of Joyful Longevity(乐寿堂) and the Pavilion of Sustained Harmony(颐和轩)。 Emperor Qianlong's Garden which served as the imperial Garden, is located on the east. Now these halls served as the Exhibition of Treasures.


  
  The Exhibition of Treasures(珍宝阁)
  
  The Exhibition of Treasures is located at the Outer Eastern Palaces of the Forbidden City. Although there were 2,972 boxes of treasures shipped to Taiwan before 1949, there are still countless and priceless treasures of the imperial family on display here. Most of the collections here are the cultural relics that used to be in the imperial court of the Qing Dynasty. The main treasures on display are: the imperial seals, ritual musical instruments, jewelry of the empress and imperial concubines, gold, peals, gems, ivory, coral, agate, textiles and embroideries, articles for everyday use. These treasures represent the high artistic skill of Chinese handicrafts as well as the luxurious life of the imperial family.
  
  Now I would like to in traduce some treasures for you. First one is the Gold Pagoda. Gold Pagoda is a Tibetan style pagoda, which is 147 centimeter high and made of gold of more than 100 kilos in weigh. The whole pagoda was used to keep the remains of Qing Emperor Qianlong's mother's fallen combed hair. It was made by Emperor Qianlong who wanted to commemorate his deceased mother.
  
  Second, the Jade Carving of Dayu Harnessing Floods(大禹治水玉山)
  
  This big piece of jade carving is named “Dayu Harnessing Floods”。 Dayu was a great leader of the Xia Dynasty. On the surface of this piece of jade carving, there are figurines doing manual labor with tools. It is 2.24 meters high and weighs about 5tons. This huge piece of jade was quarried in Xinjing, northwest of china. It was first transported to Beijing and then shopped to Yangzhou, south of China, for carving. The whole process took 10 years altogether for mining, transporting and carving. It is the largest piece of jade carving in China today.
  


  Third, Ivory Mat(象牙席):
  
  The ivory mat is really a rare treasure on display in the Exhibition of Treasures. It is 2.16meters long,1.39 meters wide, and woven with tiny piece of ivory filaments. After being softened in some kind of chemical agents, the tusk, was peeled into filaments of less than 3 milimeter thick, thus demonstrating the high artistic level of historic Chinese handicrafts. Five ivory mats were made during the Qing emperor Yongzheng's reign, but only three of them have remained till today.


  
  The Banquet of Thousand Aged People(千叟宴)
  
  The Banquet of thousand Aged people many be one of the most famous banquets in history. According to historical documents of the Qing Dynasty, the Banquet of Thousand Aged People was held for four times during the reign of Emperor Kangxi and Emperor Qianlong.
  
  The first time was in 1713 when it was held by Qing Emperor Kangxi in Changchunyuan, one of the five gardens built at that time. Nearly 2,000 aged men, above 65, attended the banquet. The second time was also held by Emperor Kangxi in 1722, when more than 730 people who were over 65 years old went to the banquet in the Palace of Heavenly Purity of the forbidden City. Emperor Qianlong held the banquet a third time in 1785, and more than 3,000 old people who were over 60 years old attended the banquet, which was held in the Palace of Heavenly Purity of the Forbidden City.
  
  The last time was in 1796, during Emperor Qianlong's reign, and it was the largest banquet of this kind and also the last banquet in the Hall of Imperial Supremacy(Huangjidian 皇极殿) of the Forbidden City. 3,056 old men took part in the banquet and all of them were above the age of 60, including members of the royal family, ministers of the former Dynasty, and old men from common people who were summoned to the capital. At the banquet, people gorged themselves with food and drinks. It's said that a lot of old men fainted, or passed out because of too much laughter, food or drink.


  
  Zhen Fei Well(珍妃井) 

 
  There is a kraurotic well near Jingqige Pavilion called Zhenfei Well. Emperor Guangxu's imperial concubine Zhenfei died here.
  
  In 1898, Emperor Guangxu pushed a reform; it is called 100-day reform because it lasted only about 100days. When it encroached the nobles' advantage, so Empress Dowager Cixi took action , and Emperor Guangxu was put under house arrest in Yingtai at the edge of Zhongnanhai Lake. Zhengfei was put under house arrest in a little yard near Jingqige pavilion. In 26th year of Emperor Guangxu's reign, the foreign armies began to attack Beijing. Cixi wanted to escapee with Guangxu. Before leaving, Cixi ordered eunuchs to drow Zhenfei in the well. This is the history of Zhenfei Well.


  
  题目五:故宫后廷内西路主要建筑及御花园(养心殿;储秀宫;御花园)
  
  The Six Western Palaces are located on the west side of the three rear palaces. During the Ming and Qing dynasties, these palaces were the residential areas for the imperial concubines. In the six Western Palaces area today, tourists mainly visit the Hail of Mental Cultivation, the Palace of Eternal Spring(Changchungon),the Palace of Assisting the Empress(Yikungong)and the Palace of Gathering Elegance(Chuxiugong)。
  
  The Hall of Mental Cultivation is on the south side of the Six Western Palaces, located in the Inner Court and close to the Outer Court. After Emperor Yong Zheng of the Qing Dynasty moved his living quarters here, this palace had become the most important building besides the Hall of Supreme Harmony in the Forbidden City.
  
  After the third Qing Emperor Yongzheng moved his residential area from the Palace of Heavenly Purity to here, the rest of the Qing emperors all resided here; then it became the place where the emperors conducted state affairs and held their private audiences.
  
  On February 12th, 1912, Empress Dowager Longyu, the empress of Emperor Guangxu ,had to issue the imperial edict in declaring the abdication in the Hall of Mental Cultiences.
  
  (1)The Central Hall(正殿)
  
  The central hall is the main hall in the Hall of Mental Cultivation. It was the audience chamber where the read documents, gave  audience to the high-ranking officials, summoned his ministers for consultation, and received important ministers. The emperor's throne is placed in the center of the hall. Behind the throne are bookshelves with a blue curtain on both sides. The books on the shelves were written by the previous emperors about their experiences and lessons in ruling the country so the newly enthroned emperor could learn lessons from them. An imperial desk is located in front of the throne with some incense burners in front of the imperial desk. Above the throne, a plaque is hung bearing the Chinese characters meaning “Just and Benevolent” in Emperor Yongzheng's handwriting. In the center of the coffered, is a sculpture of a dragon playing with a huge pearl.


  
  (2)The Western Chamber(西暖阁)
  
  The Western Chamber was partitioned into different rooms. A horizontal board with four Chinese characters “Qin Zheng Qin Xian”(diligent in handling state affairs and respectful to the talented), in Emperor Yongzheng's handwriting, is hung on the wall in one of the Western Chambers. It was the place where the emperor read reports, signed documents, and discussed the important military and political affairs with his officials.


  
  (3)The Room of Three Rare Treasures(三希堂)
  
  There is another room in the Western Chamber specially named the “Room of Three Rare Treasures.” In 1746, Emperor Qinglong had a collection of three precious outstanding calligraphy masterpieces which he kept in this chamber. They were written by three famous calligraphy of the Jin Dynasty (265~420AD), Wan Xizhi, Wang Xianzhi and Wang Xun(“Clear Sky after Snow” by Wang Xizhi,“ Mid Autumn ”by Wang Xianzhi and“ Bo Yuan ”by Wang Xun“。 Emperor Qianlong believed that they were rare treasures; hence the name the ”Room of Three Rare Treasures‘。 In this room people can see the royal seat next to a small reading and writing desk containing writing brushes and ink stones. Since the Western Chamber served as a place for the emperor to discuss the important military affairs with his military officials, a bock partition was built in front of the Western Chamber which served as a soundproof wood wall to prevent the secret talks between the emperor and his ministers from being overheard.
  


  (4)The Eastern Chamber(东暖阁)
  
  The Eastern Chamber is the chamber that has special historical significance. It was here that Empress Dowager Cixi gave audience behind the screen during the reigns of Emperor tongzhi(1862~1874)and Emperor Guangxu(1875-1908)。 So the well-known “Power Behind the Throne” or “Holding Court Behind the Curtain” was staged here by Empress Dowager Cixi since 1862.
  
  The Palace of Gathering Elegance is where Empress Dowager Cixi once lived when she was an imperial concubine. It was here that she gave birth to a son who later came to the throne as the throne as the eighth emperor of the Qing Dynasty, Emperor Tongzhi. The Palace of Gathering Elegance was restored several times during the Qing Dynasty. In 1884, they spent a great amount of silver to refurbish the hall to celebrate Empress Dowager Cixi's 50 th birthday celebration, Empress Dowager Cixi lived here for about ten years. Even today, we still can see an inscription of “Eulogy of Longevity” inscribed on the eastern wall written by two scholars to wish her a long life for the birthday celebration of Empress Dowager Cixi. The last hostess in this hall was empress Wan Rong, wife of the last emperor puyi.
  
  The Imperial Garden is located on the north-south axis almost at the northern end of the Forbidden City. It is rectangular in shape; 90 meters long from north to south, 130 meters wide from east to west, and has an area of 12,000 square meters. The Imperial Garden contains more than 20 different types of building, pavilions, terraces, towers, rockeries, etc. This fully shows the colorful and rich atmosphere of the imperial palace. The pine trees and cypress trees are green and luxuriant; the flowers are in blossom, and intermittent rockeries and pavilions make a sharp contrast with the solemn atmosphere of the whole Imperial Palace.
  


  (1)The Hall of Imperial Peace( Qinandian 钦安殿)
  
  The Hall of Imperial Peace is the main building in the Imperial Garden and also the only religious building built along the central axis, which is located inside the Tian Ti Gate. It is a Taoist temple and inside the hall the statue of the King of Xuan Wu, made of gilded bronze, used to be enshrined. Xuan Wu was believed to be the God of Water who could prevent the palace buildings from catching fire. On the first day of each Chinese lunar year, the first and fifteenth day of every month in the lunar calendar, and at the beginning of spring, summer, autumn and winter every year, a table with a tablet of King of Xuan Wu was set up for the emperor to come here for offering sacrifices to the God of Water.


  
  (2)The Twin Cypress Trees(连理柏)
  
  The Twin Cypress Trees are two 400-year-old cypress trees in front of the Hall of Imperial Peace. Because these two trees, with their branches entwined, look like two lovers embracing they are called Twin Cypress Trees.
  


  (3)The Big Incense Burner(铜香炉)
  
  The big bronze incense burner is 4 meters high and has six smoke outlets in the shape of two dragons playing with a ball. It is the largest bronze incense burner in the Forbidden City.
  


  (4)Four pavilions(四季亭)
  
  The four pavilions are located on the left and right of the Hall of Imperial Peace, two on each side, representing the four seasons of the year. The two pavilions to the east of the Hall of Imperial Peace are: Pavilion of Floating Green (Fu Bi Ting) and Pavilion of 1,000 autumns (Qian Qiu Ting)。 Fubi and Chengrui Pavilion, on the northern part of the Imperial Garden, are square sized pavilions with a fishpond under them. It is a wonderful sight in summer when water lilies are in blossom with gold fish swimming among them. Qianqiu and Wanchun Pavilions are  the structures with two layers of eaves, which are round shaped above and square blow for the ancient people believed that heaven was round while the earth was square.


  
  (5)The pathway(甬路)
  
  The pathway in the Imperial Garden was paved with tiny cobblestones. On the winding path, there are more than 900 multi-colored mosaic designs, such as scenes of water and mountains, historical figures, birds and flowers, folk stories, etc. The designs are rich and colorful covering a wide range of subjects such as: sword fighting between Guan Yunchang and Huang Zhong of the three Kingdoms, heron, goat, crane and deer enjoying spring time, the Summer Palace in spring time, as well as the henpecked husbands, etc.
  


  (6)The Piled Elegance Hill(Duixiushan 堆秀山)
  
  The piled Elegance Hill is near the north gate in the Imperial Garden. It is an artificial hill of Taihu rocks which came from Taihu Lake in Jiangsu province. The pavilion which stands on the rockery is called “Imperial View Pavilion”。 In the old days, on the ninth day of the ninth lunar month, the emperor would climb up to the Imperial View Pavilion with his empress and concubines to enjoy the scenic beauty both in and outside the imperial palace. The old saying in China goes that on the ninth day of the ninth lunar month people climbing up hills can escape any misfortune. That is why even today the Chinese people, especially the aged, still climb up the hills to celebrate the Double Ninth Festival every year in this way.

 

 

 

 

 

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