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“海南省”中英双语简介

[日期:04-03] 来源:网络  作者:未知 [字体: ]

  “海南省”中英双语简介


Hainan Province

(海南省)


  
  A Glimpse of the Province(本省简介)
  
  Hainan Province is called Qiong for short. This shortened name derives from the Chinese word Qiongzhou in the Tang Dynasty some one thousand years ago. It is China's southernmost province, with the Qiongzhou Strait to its north. There it directly faces the Leizhou Peninsula across the Beibu Gulf. While it is China's smallest province with respect to land area, it has a longer coastline and is surrounded by more sea than any other province. It consists of the primary island of Hainan, along with Xisha, Zhongsha, Nansha islands and their coastal areas. It is between latitude 18010' - 200 10' to north and longitude 108037' - 111005' to east.
  
  Hainan province is China's only province with a tropical ocean. It also covers 42.5 percent of the country's tropical land area. The average temperature on the island is 23. 8 degrees centigrade. The high monthly average temperature is 25-29 degrees centigrade in July and August, while the January and February low temperatures are between 10 -24 degrees centigrade. And the sun shines 12 hours of the day. It is a real paradise for northerners to spend their holidays away from the cold winter.
  
  Culture and Customs
  
  Hainan has a long history. It is China' s second largest island after Taiwan. Hainan has been called Immigration Island because its inhabitants come mainly from the mainland and everyone living here belong to different ethnic groups that settled down here at different times. Indeed, some 30 ethnic groups live in harmony on the island. Han Chinese people form the most numerous group and they and Li, Miao, and Hui ethnic minorities, have been living on the island for several generations.
  
  Among the ethnic minorities, the Li people are the earliest and most numerous of Hainan's migrants. The Wzhishan Mountain area is the main area inhabited by the Li nationality aborigines, and they have been living there and developing their culture and customs for more than 3000 years. They also have their spoken language but use Chinese characters as their own spoken language but use Chinese characters as their written script. The Li people are hard workers and have mainly supported themselves through farming; however, starting in the Tang and Song dynasties, they also established a family handicraft industry. Their most notable product is“Li cloth”, which is famous both at home and abroad. Now their villages and way of life have become distinctive tourist attractions.
  
  The Miao people form Hainan's second largest ethnic minority. Their numbers total 60,000 and they mainly live in the mountainous parts of Qiongzhong and Baoting autonomous counties. The Miao people are said to have originally lived in the mountainous areas of Guangxi, Guizhou and Hunan Provinces. The Miao people have kept their rich traditions in attire and enjoy their traditional five-color glutinous rice. The Miao people are also accomplished singers and dancers.
  
  The Hui people are one of the other major ethic groups in Hainan province. They settled on the island some time ago and have long history living here. They are concentrated mainly in Sanya Fenghuang Town and the very southern end of the island. Their numbers total more than 7,000. The Hui people have retained their Islamic faith and customs and gather together every year on September 28th to celebrate their traditional Islamic Guerbang festival.
  
  Hainan is not only a place of immigrants, but of emigrants as well. In fact, Hainan has become one of the three famous sources of Chinese emigration, with some 3 million overseas Chinese hailing from the island, a figure exceeded only by Guangdong and Fujian Provinces. People from Hainan can be found in 59 countries and regions throughout the world; half of them have migrated to Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia and other Southeast Asian countries.
  
  Hainan's blend of regional cultures and customs, along with the island's special local festivals, has created a truly unique and unforgettable experience for anyone visiting here.
  
  Local Festivals
  
  The different ethnic groups on Hainan Island live together in harmony. The ethnic minorities not only enjoy the major traditional Chinese festivals like spring Festival, Dragon Boat Festival and Mid-autumn Festival, but also have their festival as well. For example, the Sanyuesan Festival is the local Li and Miao festival. It is celebrated in the spring, on March 3rd (the lunar calendar) and provides unmarried young people an opportunity to find their loved ones. On that day the young boys and girls from nearby settlements get together in bright and attractive clothing. They hold hands and sing songs, do bamboo pole dancing, and have their dates in houses that are shaped like boats. The ladies wear “canister skirts” and both they and the men eat rice cooked in a bamboo pipe and drink Shanlan wine. Other festivals include the Flower Exchange Festival in Fucheng Town and Folk Song Competition Festival in Danzhou during the Mid-autumn Festival.
  
  Several modern festivals aimed solely at tourists have been established since Hainan became a province in 1988. These include the Nanshan Longevity Culture Festival, Sanya Interactional Wedding Ceremony, and Hainan Island Carnival. The last festival is an annual comprehensive interactional public festival held by the government and Hainan Tourism Bureau every' November. It originated in 2000 as part of nationwide effort to promote “China's Tourism Island”。 The Hainan Carnival has become one of the biggest and most enjoyable festivals, not only for people in Hainan, but for Chinese and foreign tourists visiting the island as well. During the many festivals staged on Hainan, such as the Miss World/Universe beauty pageant, the participants, including internationally famous film stars, share their happiness with the local people and tourists.
  
  Finally, even some foreign holidays such as the Valentine's Day, the April Fool's Day and Christmas are now celebrated by the local people.
  
  Tourism Resources
  
  Hainan Island is shaped like a pyramid.  High mountain peaks dominate the center of the island. The central mountains include the famous 1876 meter high Wuzhishan Mountain, which is 300 meters higher than Shandong's better known Mount Tai. Wuzhishan is surrounded by more than 600 0ther tall peaks with valleys, plains, rivers and lakes interspersed among them. Hainan's topography is so complicated that supernatural and peculiar tropical physiognomy exists in its rain forests. The island has a wide variety of ecosystems, including forests, grasslands, estuaries, mangrove swamps, coral reefs, bottomland, everglades, and lagoons. More than 50% of the island is covered by forests. Thus when viewed from outer space, the whole land looks like a jungle-covered mountain with rivers and valleys here and there.
  
  Situated at the same latitude as Hawaii, Hainan Island has the heaviest rainfall of any place located at this latitude in the world. The island is blessed with abundant sunshine and warmth, giving a spring-like climate year-around. Tropical crops such as rice, sugarcane, palm oil, cinnamon, sisal, betel nuts, coffee, tea, sweet potatoes, groundnuts and tobacco can flourish all year round.  At all times and in all places, the flowers are in full bloom and the birds are singing from the trees. Hainan Island is rich in biological resources, such as pleasant seas, attractive beaches, rivers, mountains, and virgin forests. It has long been called the “Natural Greenhouse”,              “Hot Spring Island”, “Tropical Orchard”, and “Ever-blooming Garden”。 Hainan is well known for the sheer of its variety of its tropical fruit which include coconut, jackfruit, pineapple, mango, lychee, longan, banana, rambutan, naseberrie, durian, apaw, olive, guava fruit, wampee, and Chinese gooseberry. The virgin tropical rain forests are also home to more than 4,600 kinds of fascicular plants, of which more than 600 are local species found only on Hainan Island. The island boasts some 560 vertebrate animal species, many of which are endangered or on the verge of extinction elsewhere in he world. Some 37 are amphibians, and 11 0f them are found only on Hainan Island. Altogether there are 134 rare animal species and 344 rare bird species on Hainan Island that are under state protection. Thus Hainan can also be seen as a key storage house or rare animal species and their genes. Only in Hainan can you have the kind of feeling that time flies backward and really appreciate just how broad and mysterious nature can be. With its tropical ocean climate, many beaches, rare living creatures and clean fresh air, Hainan is becoming a popular resort site both at home and abroad.
  
  Hainan Cuisine and Local Snacks
  
  Hainan is also famous for four particular dishes-Wenchang Chicken, Jiaji Duck, Dongshan Mutton, and Hele Crab. Both the Chicken and duck dishes are popular because their meat is tender, skin is crisp, and bones are soft. And neither dish is particular fatty or greasy. Dongshan sheep are fed natural local tea giving both the steamed and stewed mutton a tea-like flavor. Hele crab is notable for its big body, fresh meat and red cream, which gives its meat more fat and a better flavor. Local snacks include Qingzhou Coconut Pot, Coconut Milk Chicken, Lin'gao Roast Porket, Qukou seafood, Plum Blossom Trepang, Sea-ears, Lobster, Wanquan Crap, Moutain Beef, Salt Red Fish, Nada-flavor Meat, Li People Sweet Ale, Bamboo Shaft Rice, Five-color Glutinous Rice, Hainan Vermicelli, Hainan Chicken Rice, Hainan Glutinous Rice Dumplings, Hainan Chaffy Dish, and Coconut Sticky Rice Cake.
  
  Recommended Attractions
  
  Hainan island is a green island and every part of it has natural scenic beauty. The capital of Haikou is located on the north side of the island. Many famous scenic spots, including several large  tropical ecological gardens, are located in this area. The major sites include the Evergreen Garden Haikou Western Coastal Park, Guilingyang Seaside Tourism Zone, Dongzhaigang National Mango Forest Nature Reserve, Wild Pineapple Island, Benthonic Villages, and the Hainan Tropical Oceanic World. Southern Hainan Island boasts the province's most famous tourism city, Sanya. It also boasts beautiful attractions such as the Tianyahaijiao ( the end of the earth) , Dadong Sea, Yalong Bay, Butterfly Valley, Nanshan Temple, Wonders of the Mountain and Sea, Paradise Caves for Celestial Beings, and Luhuitou Park. There are many other famous attractions in Hainan Island such as the Xinglong Tropical Botanical Garden, Bo'ao Aquapolis, Nanwan Monkey Peninsula, Wenchang City's Dongjiao Coconut Grove, Juding Zoo's Rare Birds and Animals, Wuzhizhou Island, Wuzhishan Mountain, Wanquan River, six famous hot springs and waterfalls.
  
  海南省简称“琼”(源于一千多年前唐朝的琼州),位于中国内地的最南方,北隔琼州海峡,穿越北部湾与雷州半岛相望。海南省是中国陆地面积最小的省份,但却是海洋面积最大的省份,其主要组成部分为海南岛、西沙群岛、中沙群岛、南沙群岛及其海域,介于北纬1 8°10' ~ 20°10‘,东经108°37' ~ 11°005’之间。
  
  海南省是中国唯一的热带海洋岛屿省份,占全国热带土地面积的42. 5070。海南岛的年平均气温23.8度;气温最高月份为7~8月,平均气温为25℃~ 29℃;最冷的月份为1~2月,平均气温10℃~ 24℃,每天日照时间为12小时,可谓北方人在寒冬时节避寒度假的天堂。
  
  民族风情
  
  海南历史悠久,海南岛是仅次于台湾的全国第二大岛。海南岛是一个移民岛,其居民于不同的年代,在不同的背景下来自内陆的各个地方。海南省是一个多民族省份,海南岛上居住着30多个民族,其中汉、黎、苗、回族是历代常住居民,汉族的人口最多。
  
  海南省少数民族中黎族人口最多,他们是最早的居民,五指山地区就是黎族同胞最早聚居的地方,他们有着自己的文化习俗。他们移居到这里已有三千多年的历史,有自己的语言,沿用汉文书写。黎族是一个勤劳的民族,以农耕为主,他们的面锦工艺始于唐宋时期,著名的黎锦茌海内外享有盛名,黎族自然村更有独特的旅游观光价值。
  
  苗族是海南第二大少数民族,现有人口大约六万,居住在海南的琼中和保亭自治县,主要居住在山区。据说苗族是从广西壮族自治区、贵州省和湖南省等地区迁移而来。苗族服饰还保留着浓厚的民族传统特色,五色饭是苗族的特色饮食,苗族同胞能歌善舞。
  
  回族也是海南省的主要少数民族之一,在海南有着悠久的居住史。他们主要居住在海南岛最南端的三亚市凤凰镇,共有人口七千多人。在生活方面他们还仍保持着伊斯兰教习俗,于每年9月28日聚会庆祝自己的伊斯兰教传统节日--古尔邦节。
  
  海南岛不仅是移民之乡,也是我国著名的侨乡之一,其华侨的数量仅次于广东、福建两省,居全国第三位。海南旅居或定居的海外琼籍华侨、华人和港澳同胞300多万人,分布于世界59个国家和地区,其中50%聚居在泰国、新加坡、马来西亚等东南亚国家。
  
  海南岛上的各种地方节日和异样的习俗令过往游客流连忘返。
  
  节庆活动
  
  海南岛上各民族同胞和谐相处,他们不仅分享着中国的重要传统节日,如春节、端午节、中秋节等,还享有自己的节日,如“三月三”,即农历的三月初三,是黎族和苗族的传统节日。这一天是黎族和苗族未婚青年男女相互传送钟情,追求美好爱情的日子。在这一天,居住在附近的青年男女们身着艳 丽的服装,手牵着手一边唱歌,一边跳竹竿舞。有爱情的男女们相约在船形屋里谈情说爱,女人们身着别致的筒裙,他们吃的是竹筒焖的米饭,喝的是自家酿的山兰酒。岛上的民族节日还有府城换花节、儋州中秋赛歌会等。
  
  自从1 988年海南建省以来,还有一些专为促进旅游业而新兴的地方节庆,如南山长寿文化节、三亚天涯国际婚礼节以及中国海南岛欢乐节等。其中,海南岛欢乐节的来历源于海南要打造成中国的旅游岛,必须有一个为旅游聚人气、为游客添欢乐的全省性旅游节庆。为了挖掘和提升海南的旅游文化,由海南省政府和国家旅游局主办,每年1 1月举行。年复一年,海南岛欢乐节已经闻名遐迩,成为全省、全国乃至全世界享有盛名的狂欢节之一,节日期间,人们可以和世界著名的影星、世界小姐等一起共享快乐。
  
  近年来,国外的一些节日,如情人节、愚人节、圣诞节等,在当地也很盛行。
  
  旅游资源
  
  海南岛的地势酷似金字塔,中部的山脉是著名的五指山,海拔为1 876米,比中国内地的泰山高出300米,周围六百多座高高矮矮的山峰犹如宝岛的脊梁,伟岸挺拔;四周环绕着台地,还有宽窄不等的平原。大自然的神奇威力在这里雕刻出壮观的山川、湖泊,撒播无数物种,形成气象万千的热带雨林自然景观,如森林、草原、田野、人海口、红树林、岩礁、盆地、湿地和澙湖等。海南岛的森林覆盖率达50c7C以上,从空中俯瞰,整个岛屿酷似一座山川相间、丛林覆盖的山峰。
  
  海南岛和美国的夏威夷地处同一纬度,但其降雨量在世界的同一纬度堪称之最。别样的气候使海南岛四季如春,充足的光和热量适宜热带植物四季生长,如水稻、甘蔗、棕榈、肉桂、剑麻、槟榔、咖啡、茶叶、地瓜、花生和烟草等。绿色的海南岛上处处鸟语花香,有着丰富的自然资源:宜人的海水、迷人的沙滩、高耸的崇山峻岭,茂密的丛林植被。传统上享有“绿色宝库”、“温泉之岛”、“热带果园”及“四季花园”之美誉。
  
  海南不仅生产热带农作物,还盛产热带水果,诸如椰子、菠萝蜜、菠萝、芒果、荔枝、龙眼、香蕉、红毛丹、人心果、榴莲、番石榴、黄皮猕猴桃等热带水果。此外,在这原始热带雨林里生存着4600多种野生植物,其中有六百多种是海南特有的物种。这里还生活着560多种野生的路栖脊椎动物,有许多世界上濒临灭绝的物种,其中两栖类37种,仅见于海南的有11种。列入国家重点保护的野生动物有134种,鸟类有344种。生物家们认为,海南是世界上目前少有的生物基因库。置身其中,你会产生时光倒流的感觉,也许你会感叹大自然的博大精深神秘莫测。
  
  风味小吃
  
  海南有远近闻名的“四大名菜”--文昌鸡、嘉积鸭、东山羊、和乐蟹。文昌鸡和嘉积鸭之所以闻著名,主要是因为肉嫩色美、皮脆之不腻。东山羊以当地天然茶为食,因此无论是焖,还是清炖,都是肉肥而不腻,汤浓而不膻。和乐蟹的独到之处就是膏满、肉肥、黄鲜,真是令人垂涎三尺。此外就是著名的地方风味,有琼州椰子煲、椰奶鸡、临高乳猪、曲口海鲜、三亚梅花参、三亚鲍鱼、海南龙虾、万泉鲤、海南山牛肉、海南红鱼粽、那大香肉、黎族甜糟、竹筒饭、黎家酸菜、五色饭、海南粉、海南鸡饭、海南粽、海南火锅、椰丝糯米粑等。
  
  推荐景点
  
  海南岛四季常青,景色宜人。在海南岛北部的省城海口,有许多著名的游览景区,如最大的热带生态园--万绿园、海口黄金西海岸带状公园、桂林洋滨海旅游区、东寨港红树林自然保护区、野菠萝岛和海底村庄、海南热带海洋世界。在海南岛的南部有著名的旅游城--三亚,那里有景色宜人,堪称世界之最的天涯海角、大东海、亚龙湾、蝴蝶谷、南山寺、大小洞天、鹿回头公园等。此外,海南岛还有许多其他著名的景区,如兴隆热带植物园、博鳌水城、南湾猴岛、文昌东郊椰林风景区、居丁珍稀动物园、蜈支州岛、五指山、万泉河漂流、六大湿泉以及许多著名的瀑布。

 

 

 

 

 

 

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