[日期:04-03] 来源:网络  作者:未知 [字体: ]


Hainan Province


  A Glimpse of the Province(本省简介)
  Hainan Province is called Qiong for short. This shortened name derives from the Chinese word Qiongzhou in the Tang Dynasty some one thousand years ago. It is China's southernmost province, with the Qiongzhou Strait to its north. There it directly faces the Leizhou Peninsula across the Beibu Gulf. While it is China's smallest province with respect to land area, it has a longer coastline and is surrounded by more sea than any other province. It consists of the primary island of Hainan, along with Xisha, Zhongsha, Nansha islands and their coastal areas. It is between latitude 18010' - 200 10' to north and longitude 108037' - 111005' to east.
  Hainan province is China's only province with a tropical ocean. It also covers 42.5 percent of the country's tropical land area. The average temperature on the island is 23. 8 degrees centigrade. The high monthly average temperature is 25-29 degrees centigrade in July and August, while the January and February low temperatures are between 10 -24 degrees centigrade. And the sun shines 12 hours of the day. It is a real paradise for northerners to spend their holidays away from the cold winter.
  Culture and Customs
  Hainan has a long history. It is China' s second largest island after Taiwan. Hainan has been called Immigration Island because its inhabitants come mainly from the mainland and everyone living here belong to different ethnic groups that settled down here at different times. Indeed, some 30 ethnic groups live in harmony on the island. Han Chinese people form the most numerous group and they and Li, Miao, and Hui ethnic minorities, have been living on the island for several generations.
  Among the ethnic minorities, the Li people are the earliest and most numerous of Hainan's migrants. The Wzhishan Mountain area is the main area inhabited by the Li nationality aborigines, and they have been living there and developing their culture and customs for more than 3000 years. They also have their spoken language but use Chinese characters as their own spoken language but use Chinese characters as their written script. The Li people are hard workers and have mainly supported themselves through farming; however, starting in the Tang and Song dynasties, they also established a family handicraft industry. Their most notable product is“Li cloth”, which is famous both at home and abroad. Now their villages and way of life have become distinctive tourist attractions.
  The Miao people form Hainan's second largest ethnic minority. Their numbers total 60,000 and they mainly live in the mountainous parts of Qiongzhong and Baoting autonomous counties. The Miao people are said to have originally lived in the mountainous areas of Guangxi, Guizhou and Hunan Provinces. The Miao people have kept their rich traditions in attire and enjoy their traditional five-color glutinous rice. The Miao people are also accomplished singers and dancers.
  The Hui people are one of the other major ethic groups in Hainan province. They settled on the island some time ago and have long history living here. They are concentrated mainly in Sanya Fenghuang Town and the very southern end of the island. Their numbers total more than 7,000. The Hui people have retained their Islamic faith and customs and gather together every year on September 28th to celebrate their traditional Islamic Guerbang festival.
  Hainan is not only a place of immigrants, but of emigrants as well. In fact, Hainan has become one of the three famous sources of Chinese emigration, with some 3 million overseas Chinese hailing from the island, a figure exceeded only by Guangdong and Fujian Provinces. People from Hainan can be found in 59 countries and regions throughout the world; half of them have migrated to Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia and other Southeast Asian countries.
  Hainan's blend of regional cultures and customs, along with the island's special local festivals, has created a truly unique and unforgettable experience for anyone visiting here.
  Local Festivals
  The different ethnic groups on Hainan Island live together in harmony. The ethnic minorities not only enjoy the major traditional Chinese festivals like spring Festival, Dragon Boat Festival and Mid-autumn Festival, but also have their festival as well. For example, the Sanyuesan Festival is the local Li and Miao festival. It is celebrated in the spring, on March 3rd (the lunar calendar) and provides unmarried young people an opportunity to find their loved ones. On that day the young boys and girls from nearby settlements get together in bright and attractive clothing. They hold hands and sing songs, do bamboo pole dancing, and have their dates in houses that are shaped like boats. The ladies wear “canister skirts” and both they and the men eat rice cooked in a bamboo pipe and drink Shanlan wine. Other festivals include the Flower Exchange Festival in Fucheng Town and Folk Song Competition Festival in Danzhou during the Mid-autumn Festival.
  Several modern festivals aimed solely at tourists have been established since Hainan became a province in 1988. These include the Nanshan Longevity Culture Festival, Sanya Interactional Wedding Ceremony, and Hainan Island Carnival. The last festival is an annual comprehensive interactional public festival held by the government and Hainan Tourism Bureau every' November. It originated in 2000 as part of nationwide effort to promote “China's Tourism Island”。 The Hainan Carnival has become one of the biggest and most enjoyable festivals, not only for people in Hainan, but for Chinese and foreign tourists visiting the island as well. During the many festivals staged on Hainan, such as the Miss World/Universe beauty pageant, the participants, including internationally famous film stars, share their happiness with the local people and tourists.
  Finally, even some foreign holidays such as the Valentine's Day, the April Fool's Day and Christmas are now celebrated by the local people.
  Tourism Resources
  Hainan Island is shaped like a pyramid.  High mountain peaks dominate the center of the island. The central mountains include the famous 1876 meter high Wuzhishan Mountain, which is 300 meters higher than Shandong's better known Mount Tai. Wuzhishan is surrounded by more than 600 0ther tall peaks with valleys, plains, rivers and lakes interspersed among them. Hainan's topography is so complicated that supernatural and peculiar tropical physiognomy exists in its rain forests. The island has a wide variety of ecosystems, including forests, grasslands, estuaries, mangrove swamps, coral reefs, bottomland, everglades, and lagoons. More than 50% of the island is covered by forests. Thus when viewed from outer space, the whole land looks like a jungle-covered mountain with rivers and valleys here and there.
  Situated at the same latitude as Hawaii, Hainan Island has the heaviest rainfall of any place located at this latitude in the world. The island is blessed with abundant sunshine and warmth, giving a spring-like climate year-around. Tropical crops such as rice, sugarcane, palm oil, cinnamon, sisal, betel nuts, coffee, tea, sweet potatoes, groundnuts and tobacco can flourish all year round.  At all times and in all places, the flowers are in full bloom and the birds are singing from the trees. Hainan Island is rich in biological resources, such as pleasant seas, attractive beaches, rivers, mountains, and virgin forests. It has long been called the “Natural Greenhouse”,              “Hot Spring Island”, “Tropical Orchard”, and “Ever-blooming Garden”。 Hainan is well known for the sheer of its variety of its tropical fruit which include coconut, jackfruit, pineapple, mango, lychee, longan, banana, rambutan, naseberrie, durian, apaw, olive, guava fruit, wampee, and Chinese gooseberry. The virgin tropical rain forests are also home to more than 4,600 kinds of fascicular plants, of which more than 600 are local species found only on Hainan Island. The island boasts some 560 vertebrate animal species, many of which are endangered or on the verge of extinction elsewhere in he world. Some 37 are amphibians, and 11 0f them are found only on Hainan Island. Altogether there are 134 rare animal species and 344 rare bird species on Hainan Island that are under state protection. Thus Hainan can also be seen as a key storage house or rare animal species and their genes. Only in Hainan can you have the kind of feeling that time flies backward and really appreciate just how broad and mysterious nature can be. With its tropical ocean climate, many beaches, rare living creatures and clean fresh air, Hainan is becoming a popular resort site both at home and abroad.
  Hainan Cuisine and Local Snacks
  Hainan is also famous for four particular dishes-Wenchang Chicken, Jiaji Duck, Dongshan Mutton, and Hele Crab. Both the Chicken and duck dishes are popular because their meat is tender, skin is crisp, and bones are soft. And neither dish is particular fatty or greasy. Dongshan sheep are fed natural local tea giving both the steamed and stewed mutton a tea-like flavor. Hele crab is notable for its big body, fresh meat and red cream, which gives its meat more fat and a better flavor. Local snacks include Qingzhou Coconut Pot, Coconut Milk Chicken, Lin'gao Roast Porket, Qukou seafood, Plum Blossom Trepang, Sea-ears, Lobster, Wanquan Crap, Moutain Beef, Salt Red Fish, Nada-flavor Meat, Li People Sweet Ale, Bamboo Shaft Rice, Five-color Glutinous Rice, Hainan Vermicelli, Hainan Chicken Rice, Hainan Glutinous Rice Dumplings, Hainan Chaffy Dish, and Coconut Sticky Rice Cake.
  Recommended Attractions
  Hainan island is a green island and every part of it has natural scenic beauty. The capital of Haikou is located on the north side of the island. Many famous scenic spots, including several large  tropical ecological gardens, are located in this area. The major sites include the Evergreen Garden Haikou Western Coastal Park, Guilingyang Seaside Tourism Zone, Dongzhaigang National Mango Forest Nature Reserve, Wild Pineapple Island, Benthonic Villages, and the Hainan Tropical Oceanic World. Southern Hainan Island boasts the province's most famous tourism city, Sanya. It also boasts beautiful attractions such as the Tianyahaijiao ( the end of the earth) , Dadong Sea, Yalong Bay, Butterfly Valley, Nanshan Temple, Wonders of the Mountain and Sea, Paradise Caves for Celestial Beings, and Luhuitou Park. There are many other famous attractions in Hainan Island such as the Xinglong Tropical Botanical Garden, Bo'ao Aquapolis, Nanwan Monkey Peninsula, Wenchang City's Dongjiao Coconut Grove, Juding Zoo's Rare Birds and Animals, Wuzhizhou Island, Wuzhishan Mountain, Wanquan River, six famous hot springs and waterfalls.
  海南省简称“琼”(源于一千多年前唐朝的琼州),位于中国内地的最南方,北隔琼州海峡,穿越北部湾与雷州半岛相望。海南省是中国陆地面积最小的省份,但却是海洋面积最大的省份,其主要组成部分为海南岛、西沙群岛、中沙群岛、南沙群岛及其海域,介于北纬1 8°10' ~ 20°10‘,东经108°37' ~ 11°005’之间。
  海南省是中国唯一的热带海洋岛屿省份,占全国热带土地面积的42. 5070。海南岛的年平均气温23.8度;气温最高月份为7~8月,平均气温为25℃~ 29℃;最冷的月份为1~2月,平均气温10℃~ 24℃,每天日照时间为12小时,可谓北方人在寒冬时节避寒度假的天堂。
  海南岛上各民族同胞和谐相处,他们不仅分享着中国的重要传统节日,如春节、端午节、中秋节等,还享有自己的节日,如“三月三”,即农历的三月初三,是黎族和苗族的传统节日。这一天是黎族和苗族未婚青年男女相互传送钟情,追求美好爱情的日子。在这一天,居住在附近的青年男女们身着艳 丽的服装,手牵着手一边唱歌,一边跳竹竿舞。有爱情的男女们相约在船形屋里谈情说爱,女人们身着别致的筒裙,他们吃的是竹筒焖的米饭,喝的是自家酿的山兰酒。岛上的民族节日还有府城换花节、儋州中秋赛歌会等。
  自从1 988年海南建省以来,还有一些专为促进旅游业而新兴的地方节庆,如南山长寿文化节、三亚天涯国际婚礼节以及中国海南岛欢乐节等。其中,海南岛欢乐节的来历源于海南要打造成中国的旅游岛,必须有一个为旅游聚人气、为游客添欢乐的全省性旅游节庆。为了挖掘和提升海南的旅游文化,由海南省政府和国家旅游局主办,每年1 1月举行。年复一年,海南岛欢乐节已经闻名遐迩,成为全省、全国乃至全世界享有盛名的狂欢节之一,节日期间,人们可以和世界著名的影星、世界小姐等一起共享快乐。
  海南岛的地势酷似金字塔,中部的山脉是著名的五指山,海拔为1 876米,比中国内地的泰山高出300米,周围六百多座高高矮矮的山峰犹如宝岛的脊梁,伟岸挺拔;四周环绕着台地,还有宽窄不等的平原。大自然的神奇威力在这里雕刻出壮观的山川、湖泊,撒播无数物种,形成气象万千的热带雨林自然景观,如森林、草原、田野、人海口、红树林、岩礁、盆地、湿地和澙湖等。海南岛的森林覆盖率达50c7C以上,从空中俯瞰,整个岛屿酷似一座山川相间、丛林覆盖的山峰。








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